Chapter 3 If conditional sentences

BSE : 3.3/4.3/3/3.3 : 10 x 45 minutes

IF-CONDITIONAL SENTENCES TYPE 1,2,3 and SUBJUNCTIVES

Basic Competence

3.3 menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait rencana yang akan datang dengan kondisi tertentu, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan if dalam present tense)

3.4 (xii) menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait pengandaian terjadinya / dilakukannya sesuatu yang tidak nyata pada saat ini dan pada waktu lampau, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan conditional: past danpast perfect)

4.3 menyusun teks interaksi transaksional lisandan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait rencana yang akan datang dengan kondisi tertentu, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsu rkebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks

4.4 (xii) menyusun teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait pengandaian terjadinya/dilakukannyasesuatu yang tidak nyata pada saat ini danpada waktu lampau, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benardansesuai konteks

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will learn about the difference of if-conditional sentences type 1,2,3 and subjunctives in the form of interpersonal dialogues. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure used to make the whole dialogue meaningful.  Practicing how to compose those dialogues is needed to enhance your understanding on the social function of if-conditional sentences type 1,2,3 and subjunctives.

Learning process

 GENERAL INSTRUCTION : You must ensure that you understand the material step by step. At the end, there will be an evaluation to test your level of understanding on the material. When your level is above the passing score, you may continue to the next material. Before you ask for the evaluation, please ensure yourself that you have already mastered the whole material in this chapter.

BEFORE LEARNING

Yipee…watch movies ..!!!

OPEN THESE WEB SITES, AND TELL WHAT YOU CAN LEARN!

      1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l4WNrvVjiTw
      2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kOSNTqHHXPA
      3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NnONBkEQUU0

WHILST LEARNING

DO YOU HAVE ANY IDEA WHAT YOU ARE GOING TO LEARN?      

Ummmm… a bit??

 OK! LET’S LEARN THEM STEP BY STEP, AND MAKE SURE THAT YOU UNDERSTAND EACH STEP!

ACTIVITY ONE

WATCH THE VIDEOS AGAIN, AND WRITE THE SENTENCES WITH “IF”

      1. _________________________________________
      1. _________________________________________
      1. _________________________________________
      1. _________________________________________
      1. _________________________________________
      1. _________________________________________
      1. _________________________________________
      1. _________________________________________

NOW, WRITE THE PATTERN OF EACH SENTENCE .

  1. _________________________________________

2.  _________________________________________

3. _________________________________________

4. _________________________________________

5. _________________________________________

6. _________________________________________

7. _________________________________________

8. _________________________________________

AFTER THAT, FIND OUT THREE DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF IF-CONDITIONAL CLAUSES AND WRITE THEM!

Type 1 : ____________________________________________

Type 2 : ____________________________________________

Type 3 : ____________________________________________

DISCUSS EACH PATTERN AND ITS MEANING WITH YOUR SEATMATE, WHILE CHECKING THEM ON THE GRAMMAR BOOK. THEN SHARE THE PATTERNS WITH THE CLASS.

ASK THE TEACHER TO ENSURE WHETHER ALL ARE CORRECT OR NOT.

TO GET MORE UNDERSTANDING ON THIS MATERIAL, DO THESE EXERCISES ON THE NEXT ACTIVITY!


ACTIVITY TWO

MATCH EACH MAIN CLAUSE TO ITS APPROPRIATE SUB CLAUSE PROVIDED BELOW.

      1. If you want to have your salad more tasty,….
      2. If my teacher hadn’t forced me to speak English,….
      3. If you behave only in favor of your parents’ attention,….
      4. If blood didn’t function in coagulation,….
      5. If her parents hadn’t sent her to therapist for her trauma,….
      6. If the circulatory system didn’t work well,….
      7. If your arguments hadn’t been focused on the analyses,….
      8. If everyone were aware of the danger of the plastic waste,….
      9. If the answers are correct,….
      10. If children are given some outdoor activities,….
      11. If the knife weren’t blunt,….
      12. If the public transportation isn’t available here,….
      13. If there are still some frictions among the people about the life principles in our country,….
      14. If there were not fictional characters on children’s bed stories,….
      15. If you have strong determination on what you want to reach,….

*you won’t get mature,   *we won’t be able to reach the destination on time,   *it will be manifested,   *they wouldn’t consume so much plastic,   *dress it with some grated cheese,   *they will be more aware of the importance of nature in their life,   *the doctor wouldn’t be doing the surgery on his heart,    *you would cut your finger,   *I wouldn’t have been accepted in this company,   *we may continue to the next level,   *there won’t be any peace,   *we would have been beaten easily,  * children wouldn’t be able to get imagination which sometimes helps them to be creative,  *human would be able to survive when wounded,   *she would get homophobia

WRITE THE FACT OF EACH SENTENCE ABOVE!

      1. ___________________________________________________________________________
      2. ___________________________________________________________________________
      3. ___________________________________________________________________________
      4. ___________________________________________________________________________
      5. ___________________________________________________________________________
      6. ___________________________________________________________________________
      7. ___________________________________________________________________________
      8. ___________________________________________________________________________
      9. ___________________________________________________________________________
      10. ___________________________________________________________________________
      11. ___________________________________________________________________________
      12. ___________________________________________________________________________
      13. ___________________________________________________________________________
      14. ___________________________________________________________________________
      15. ___________________________________________________________________________

COMPLETE THE SENTENCES BELOW MEANINGFULLY!

      1. If you don’t want to say anything, …
      2. We would be very upset if …
      3. If you were willing to open your heart for her, …
      4. The students may not choose this puzzle if…
      5. The librarian would have asked us to pay if …
      6. If the characters in the movies weren’t given such unique names, …
      7. If the exams had been cancelled, …
      8. Smart phone will give bad impact to our life if …
      9. Many people wouldn’t feel lonely if …
      10. Some Indonesian athletes wouldn’t have failed in the Asian games if …
      11. If he could picture her on his arms, …
      12. If she had come to my heart, …
      13. If you hear my beating heart, …
      14. The scenic pictures the artist painted on the wall will be phenomenal if …
      15. Van Gogh would have been proud of himself if …

DISCUSS YOUR ANSWER WITH THE TEACHER!

HAVING LEARNT ON IF-CONDITIONAL SENTENCES TYPE 1,2 AND 3, YOU ARE TO LEARN WHAT SUBJUNCTIVES ARE. 

READ THIS DIALOGUE, THEN ANALYZE THE PATTERNS OF THE UNDERLINED SENTENCES!

Mr. Wi     :  I want to retire but I cannot find the young man who has high integrity in helping people. I wish I could find a few good men among the last recruitment.

Mr. Lee    :  I am with you. There are a lot of young men with high competence, but they don’t have discipline and responsibility in their work. I also wish some schools didn’t focus on the academic skill only.

Mr. Wi     :  This happens everywhere. People wish they were served well in any public place. But, you can see that the service is poor.

Mr. Lee    :  We cannot just depend on the schools to build the young men’s characters because parents are the main educators.

Mr. Wi     :  Unfortunately, many parents are busy with their own business. We just wish parents had more time for their children as our parents did.

Mr. Lee    :  Our parents did? My parents did not. I wished my father had taught me how to be a gentleman. He was drunk every day.

Mr. Wi     :  I am so sorry to hear that. I don’t mean to …

Mr. Lee    :  It’s alright. At least, I still have some time with my children.

Mr. Wi     :  When I was a child, I wish I could have had much time to have a leisure time with my friends. In fact, I had to help my parents to work. But, that taught me how to be responsible and appreciate time.

COMPARE THE UNDERLINED SENTENCES TO IF-CONDITIONAL SENTENCES TYPE 2 AND 3, THEN WRITE THE DIFFERENCE AND THE SIMILARITY OF THEM!

THE DIFFERENCE : ____________________________________________

____________________________________________

THE SIMILARITY : ____________________________________________

____________________________________________

DISCUSS WHAT YOU FIND OUT WITH THE TEACHER! AFTER THAT, DO THE EXERCISES BELOW.

MAKE A SENTENCE WITH SUBJUNCTIVES BASED ON THE GIVEN FACTS BELOW!

      1. Indonesian people still have low appreciation on art works.
      2. Only few Indonesian actors go internationally.
      3. Parents often cast doubts on their children’s capability in surviving.
      4. The judges didn’t want to hear our next arguments.
      5. Some journalists didn’t write the true facts.
      6. There was a big conflict that was started only by insulting each other.
      7. I wanted him to say good bye before his moving to another country.
      8. The decision sounds to be made in a hurry.
      9. The school regulations shouldn’t restrict the students’ creativity.
      10. The speaker is speaking in English too fast.
      11. The dishes are fatty.
      12. We were not given a chance to express our opinion in the conference.
      13. Where the terrorists learnt how to make such a deadly bombs is still a mystery.
      14. The financial problem ruined the country’s monetary ten years ago.
      15. Some people still don’t believe whether our president works well or not.

CHOOSING THE CORRECT FACT FOR THE GIVEN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES OR SUBJUNCTIVES.

      1. If the time were linear throughout the world, we wouldn’t experience the jet lag.  (A. We feel tiredness physically and mentally because the world is divided into some time zones.     B.  We don’t get any experience during the journey on the plane for we enjoy the time.)
      1. Indonesian people who were invited to watch the Royal wedding in English Embassy wished they could have met the just Married Royal Couple themselves.   (A.  Indonesian people were happy to be invited to the embassy.    B.   Our people felt disappointed for they couldn’t meet the Royal Couple.)
      1. If the pilot of the air ambulance hadn’t been so professional, the victims on the snowy mountain wouldn’t have survived.    (A.The pilot was competent so there were many victims saved.    B.  The pilot wasn’t professional so the victims couldn’t survive.)
      1. People wish science teachers taught the integrated skills like having an experiment.   (A.  Most of science teachers have good ways in teaching science.    B.  Most of science teachers teach only the concepts.)
      1. The journalists wouldn’t be allowed to enter the press conference if they didn’t bring their identity card.   (A.  The journalists cannot cover what is being discussed in the conference.    B.  The journalists are following the conference seriously.)
      1. The only Indonesian policeman who works in UNO’s office wishes there would be more Indonesian police working there.   (A.  There is only one policeman working for UNO’s office.   B.  There will be some more police working for UNO’s office.)
      1. If there had been many Indonesian farmers knowing how to grow coffee plants years ago, Indonesia would dominate the international market now.   (A.  There is a great demand on Indonesian coffee because people have planted them since years ago.   B.  It’s difficult to compete in the international coffee market as people just realized the quality of our coffee few years ago.)
      1. Many farmers wish the government gave them more guidance and financial help to improve their planting yields.   (A.  The government still gives a little attention on what farmers try to improve their product.   B.  The government has had a strong commitment to help the farmers to improve their product.)
      1. If some parents planted good seeds on their children’s mind, they wouldn’t be terrorists.   (A.  Since some parents don’t care on their children’s education, there are many teenagers joining the terrorists.  B. Since some parents are busy, their children find their own good education.)
      1. Your speech wouldn’t have represented the true scientific report if you hadn’t given the correct data of your research.  (A.  Your speech didn’t represent anything because there were no data at all.   B.  The data supported your speech so it showed the scientific report.)
      1. The camera men wished they had been permitted to shoot the scenes on the altar during the wedding ceremony.  (A.  The camera men got some good angles to get good video on the ceremony.   B.  The camera men felt frustrated as they couldn’t make a good video on the ceremony.)
      1. People living in the conflict countries wish they could live in harmony.   (A.  Those people’s lives are always in danger.   B.  Those people can live harmoniously.)
      1. If some Indonesian professors had had their own research, they wouldn’t have plagiarized the journal report.   (A.  As those professors didn’t make their own research, they copied others’ and claimed to be theirs.   B.  Since those professors didn’t know how to make a research, they tried making it themselves.)
      1. The guests wished they would have enjoyed the feast with many kinds of dishes.  (A.  The guests enjoyed the dishes.   B.  The guests grumbled on the dishes.)
      1. The president wishes the people actively reported a little movement of criminalities like terrorism or corruption.  (A.  The people don’t care on what is happening around them.  B.  The people give their great attention on terrorism or corruption. )

Wait! I miss my bananas. May I have a rest for a while? I am so hungry.

OK, NOW LET THE TEACHER CHECK YOUR WORK.

IF YOUR WORK IS CORRECT, THEN GO ON TO THE NEXT ACTIVITIES.


HOPEFULLY, YOU HAVE UNDERSTOOD THE MATERIAL WELL. NOW, IT’S TIME TO PRACTICE IT IN WRITING AND SPEAKING SKILL. THEN, DO THESE ACTIVITIES BELOW!

 ACTIVTY THREE

FIND TWO FRIENDS, THEN WRITE A THREE MINUTE DIALOGUE USING THE IF-CONDITIONAL SENTENCES TYPE 1,2,3 AND THE SUBJUNCTIVES.

ACTIVTY FOUR

RECORD YOUR DIALOGUE, THEN PRESENT THE VIDEO TO THE CLASS!

TO ENHANCE YOUR UNDERSTANDING ABOUT THIS MATERIAL, ASK THE TEACHER TO GIVE YOU PRACTICE THROUGH LISTENING.


IT ‘S TIME TO SUMMARIZE WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT! SO, ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW!

      1. What are the tenses used in if-conditional type 1?
      2. What are the tenses used in if-conditional type 2?
      3. What are the tenses used in if-conditional type 3?
      4. What are the tenses used in present subjunctive?
      5. What are the tenses used in past subjunctive?
      6. When is if-conditional type 1 used?
      7. When is if-conditional type 2 used?
      8. When is if-conditional type 3 used?
      9. When is present subjunctive used?
      10. When is past subjunctive used?

 SHOW YOUR ANSWERS TO THE TEACHER. ARE  YOUR  ANSWERS CORRECT?

 ALRIGHT, THEN FILL IN THE TABLE BELOW!

SELF-REFLECTION ON THE MASTERY OF MATERIALS

No QUESTIONS Yes No
1. Can you differentiate the if-conditional sentences from the subjunctives?
2. Do you understand the grammatical structure of the two patterns?
3. Can you apply if-conditional sentences and the subjunctives in sentences?
4. Can you compose a dialogue on if-conditional sentences and the subjunctives?
5. Do you understand a dialogue in if-conditional sentences and the subjunctives through listening?
6 Can you perform a dialogue in if-conditional sentences and the subjunctives?
Hurray…we have completed this material.

Let’s take a selfie before continuing the next chapter!!!

 

ENGLISH LITERATURE XI

Modal Perfect

MODAL PERFECT
The explanation about general modal auxiliary verbs which refer to the present or future time (except could and would) can be read in MODAL VERBS. This part will only explain about the general modal auxiliary verbs with perfect infinitives which talk about the past activity ( except for will or shall ).

  1. WILL / SHALL + HAVE  +  PAST PARTICIPLE

See the use of this construction in the chapter explaining about  “ Present Future Perfect Tense “.

  1. WOULD + HAVE  +  PAST PARTICIPLE

See   the use of this construction in the chapter about  “Past Future Perfect Tense“ and the chapter explaining  about  “ If-Conditional Sentence“.

  1. SHOULD / OUGHT TO  +  HAVE  +  PAST PARTICIPLE

e.g.     –     These plants can’t grow up well. You should have planted them  in  a right distance as the book says!

–     The machine should have been tested first. Unfortunately, the operator believed too much to what the salesman said. Now, we cannot use it.

  1. MAY /  MIGHT (possibility)  +  HAVE  +  PAST PARTICIPLE

e.g.     –     They may have entered through the back door. It is reasonable because it was the only door that wasn’t locked at that time.

–    The audience may have given the appreciation to their performance if they had managed it professionally. They are talented dancers.

  1. MAY ( permission) + HAVE  +  PAST PARTICIPLE

e.g.     –     Many migrants may have planted some trees on the land around their house to improve their family’s income. But they were too lazy to do it. They left the land infertile.

–    If the staff had known the deceit,  they may not have stayed in that office any longer.

  1. CAN / COULD (ability) +  HAVE  +  PAST PARTICIPLE

e.g.     –     Everybody could have expressed their opinion if they had been given the chance to. They were disappointed to the committee.

–     Our students seemed to be very passive in that discussion though I believe that they could have argued well .

  1. CAN / COULD (possibility) +  HAVE  +  PAST PARTICIPLE  (for affirmative and interrogative only )

e.g.     –     He didn’t get his credit. Could the bank have made a mistake?

–    Both of them had an intimate conversation in that party. They can have known each other before.

  1. CAN’T / COULDN’T (negative deduction) +  HAVE  +  PAST PARTICIPLE

e.g.     –     He couldn’t have taken the chance in that competition because of his low ability.

–     Their teachers can’t have encouraged them to do some positive activities supporting their learning process as students and teenagers. They lost for every competition.

  1. MUST ( positive deduction ) + HAVE  +  PAST PARTICIPLE

e.g.     –     The scientists must have spent their lives for this amazing discovery for years. It will be useful for the medical treatment.

–     The police must have investigated  it more than once. Their evidence is really accurate and liable.

 

GRAMMAR

 

IF-CONDITIONAL CLAUSES

IF-CONDITIONAL SENTENCES and SUBJUNCTIVES

  1. CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE ONE : (present or future possibility)

MAIN CLAUSE    IF   SUB CLAUSE

____________________

Present future        if     present

e.g.        –              The snake will bite you if you move.

–      The calculation will be more accurate if you use computer.

Possible  variations of the main clause :

1.1  may / might ( possibility)  if  simple present

e.g.        –              Everyone may ignore you if you don’t change your topic.

–      Some arguments might appear if you prepare the presentation well.

1.2  may ( permission) or can (permission / ability)   if  simple present

e.g.        –              You may leave the room if your documents are in order.

–      The students can express their ideas in writing and speaking if they are trained regularly.

1.3  must, should, any expression of command, request and advice  if  simple present

 e.g.        –              You should eat less bread if you want to lose your weight.

–      You must call this number if your house is on fire.

–      Prepare everything carefully if you don’t want to get trouble in your journey.

–      If you see Ditto, will you ask him to ring me?

–      You had better take a rest for a while if you feel tired.

 

Variations of the if-clause

1.4. if  +  present continuous : to indicate a present action or future arrangement

e.g.  –     You had better join the queue if you are waiting for the bus. (=indicate a present action)

–     You may use our car if you are having a journey with your family next month. ( future arrangement )

1.5  if  +  present perfect

e.g. –     I will ask the waiter for the bill if you have finished this meal.

–     The students should be given a chance to try it by themselves if they have understood the explanation.

 

  1. CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE TWO (= Present contrary to facts)

MAIN CLAUSE   IF   SUB CLAUSE

___________________

Past future             if         past

e.g.  –     I would drive you to the meeting if I had a car,  but I don’t have a car so I don’t drive you.

–     We would be able to handle this if we were given the permission to do it,   but  we can’t handle it because we aren’t given permission to do it.

Type two is used when:

 2.1  the supposition is contrary to the present facts

 e.g.  –     If I were you, I would plant some trees around the house.

But I am not you.

–     The audience would not complain and walk out of the hall if his performances were attractive and qualified.

But  the performances are  not attractive and qualified, so the audience complain and walk out of the hall.

2.2   we don’t expect  the action in the if-clause to take place

e.g.  –     If a burglar came into my house at night, I would throw this iron tool at him.

But  I don’t expect the burglar to come into my house.

         –     If our representative failed in this session, we would lose the chance to win in this prestigious festival.

But  we don’t expect our representative fails in this session.

2.3   might or could can be used instead of “would”

e.g. –     If they knew English well, they could finish it in short time.

But   they can’t finish it quickly because they don’t know English well.

–     The students might give the positive response if they understood the advantage of this activity.

But  the students do not understand the advantage of this activity so they do not give the positive response.

2.4. Past Continuous tense can be used in if-clause

e.g.     – If they were having an experiment this week, they would face some problems because of the bad weather.

But  they are not having an experiment this week.

– The visitors might see the favorite animal if it were being fed.

But   the favorite animal isn’t being fed now.

 

  1. CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE THREE (= past contrary to facts)

MAIN CLAUSE   IF   SUB CLAUSE

____________________

Past future perfect   if     past perfect

e.g.  –     If I had know that he came with his director, I would have prepared the best dinner for them.

But  I didn’t know that he came with his director so I didn’t prepare the best dinner for them.

–     We would have been able to keep in touch with him some years ago if there had been a sophisticated communication tool.

But  there was not a sophisticated communication tool so we weren’t able to keep in touch with him and finally lost him.

 

Possible variations of the main clause :

3.1 could  /  might  can be used instead of “would”

 e.g.     –     If we had found him five minutes earlier, we could have saved his life (ability)

But we couldn’t save his life because we didn’t find him.

–     There might have been few numbers of people died in that disaster if they had paid attention to what the news had said before (possibility)

But  the people didn’t pay attention to what the news had said before so there were many numbers of people died in that disaster.

 

3.2       the continuous form in the main clause may be used

 e.g.     –     I would have been being detained for a day if there hadn’t been someone explaining that I was not involved in the riot.

But  I wasn’t  being detained for a day because there was someone explaining that I was not involved in the riot.

–     Many workers might have been doing the job when the one of the tanks exploded if you hadn’t asked them  to have a rest.

Fortunately, you asked them to have a rest.

 

3.3          We can use past perfect continuous in if-clause :

e.g.     –     If I hadn’t been wearing a good helmet, I would have got  badly injured in that accident.

Luckily, I was wearing a good helmet.

–     If those children had been playing in the sea when the big sudden wave broke on the shore, it would have taken them away from the shore.

Luckily, those children were not playing in the sea when the big sudden wave broke on the shore.

 

  1. SOME NOTES

4.1       Inversion of  subject and its auxiliary

e.g.     –     If she were here, he would play better   =   Were she here, he would play better

–     If he had portrayed the emotion of each character in his novel well, he might have got the first prize    =  Had he  portrayed the emotion of each character in his novel well, he might have got the first prize

–     If your parents should decide to stay, please let me know it   =   Should  your parents decide to stay, please let me know it.

 

 4.2      “will /  would  / should “ can be used  in if-clause type one

4.2.1   in polite request

 e.g.    –     If you would wait for a minute, you can get the  best result.

–     If you would forgive them, they will be relieved.

4.2.2   to indicate the willingness or refusal 

e.g.     –     If he would tell me what he feels, I may be able to help him

–     If he won’t accept  our proposal again, I don’t know what I have to do next.

4.2.3   “should “ is used  to indicate that the action is not very likely

e.g.    –     If you should find no advantage  in this experiment, you can leave it.

–     If it should rain hard, we have to change the plan.

 

4.3  It is possible to have the mixed tense in if– conditional clause.

e.g.    –     if he hadn’t called me last night, I wouldn’t be here.  (fact : I am here because he called me last night)

 

  1. SUBJUNCTIVE (present contrary to the fact)

WISH      +   SENTENCE IN PAST

e.g.     –     The people wish the price of everything didn’t raise so high.

In fact,  it raises higher and higher.

–     The headmaster wishes most students used their time to have advantageous activity.

But, they don’t use their time wisely.

 

  1. SUBJUNCTIVE (past contrary to the fact)

WISH

———       +   SENTENCE IN PAST PERFECT

WISHED

e.g.     – We wish our students had been active in that seminar.

Unfortunately, they were very passive and even looked bored.

– The audience wished the show had introduced the latest styles.

But,  it introduced the same style as those of last year.

 

  1. WOULD RATHER

SENTENCE IN PAST

WOULD RATHER   +  —————————————

SENTENCE IN PAST PERFECT

e.g.     – I would rather you practiced well.

In fact,  he doesn’t practice seriously.

– We would rather the high school students thought more about their future than their feud with those of other schools.

In fact,  we often hear their fight without any acceptable reasons.

– I would rather his parents had met me before the headmaster decided to punish him.

But,  they didn’t come

 

  1. IF ONLY

SENTENCE IN PAST

IF ONLY  +   —————————————

SENTENCE IN PAST PERFECT

e.g.    – If only I knew what to do, I might not be confused like this.

But, I don’t know what to do now.

– If only I had been told about what they needed before the speech, they wouldn’t have been disappointed to my presentation.

But,  the committee told me nothing about the participants.

 

GRAMMAR 

 

Too and Enough

TOO and ENOUGH

  1. TOO + ADJECTIVE  /  LINKING VERBS  +  TO INFINITIVE

The infinitive can refer to the subject of the sentence (* the doer of the infinitive is the subject of the sentence). It has an active meaning .

e.g.- You are too young to understand the content of this book ( =  you are so young that you can’t understand it )

If the subject of the sentence is the object of the infinitive,  it has a passive meaning.

e.g. – The plate looks too hot to touch  (=  the plate is so hot that we should not touch it )

 

 2. TOO + ADJECTIVE  /  LINKING VERBS  +  FOR NOUN / PRONOUN + TO INFINITIVE

The subject of the sentence is always the object of the infinitive.

e.g. – The case is too complicated for us to solve.

– He is too smart for you to argue with.

 

3. TOO  +  ADVERB  +  TO  INFINITIVE

e.g. – That native speaker spoke too fast to understand.

–  She types too slowly to finish this report on time.

 4. ADJECTIVE + ENOUGH  +  TO INFINITIVE

e.g. – She is tall enough to follow the test for being a stewardess.

– The milk has been cool enough to drink.

5. ADVERB + ENOUGH  +  TO INFINITIVE

e.g. – They investigated the case accurately enough to send the  white collar criminal to jail

– The wind blows hard enough for the children to play outside.

6. ADJECTIVE + ENOUGH  +  THAT  +  CLAUSE

e.g. – I was tired enough that I slept soundly last night.

– The motorists are careless enough that there is often an accident here.

7. ADVERB  +  ENOUGH  +  THAT  +  CLAUSE

e.g. – The writer describes the beauty of the spot descriptively enough that the reader can imagine it.

– This monkey got the bananas on the top of tree fast and skillfully enough that we can’t follow its motion.

8. ENOUGH  +  NOUN  +  TO INFINITIVE

e.g. – He doesn’t earn enough money to live on.

– We have enough time to think of it.

 

GRAMMAR

RECOUNT

RECOUNT

Communicative Purpose:

To tell activities in the past

 Generic Structure of Recount

  1. Orientation: Introducing the participants, place and time
  2. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past
  3. Reorientation: It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story

TEXT ONE

Read the text well, then answer the questions below!

Benjamin Banneker was born in Baltimore County, Maryland in 1731. His mother was a free black. His father was a freed slave.

At the time, the American colonies were heavily engaged in the slave trade from Africa. Around the time Banneker was born, about 37,000 enslaved people arrived in the colonies. Free black people such as Banneker were rare. Free blacks also faced the risk of being kidnapped and sold as slaves.

Young Benjamin Banneker showed remarkable skill in mathematics and mechanics. He did not regularly go to school because of his work on the family farm. But he did briefly attend a local Quaker school. Quakers are a religious community who believe in racial equality, an unusual idea at the time.

The mechanics of machines greatly interested young Banneker. He showed his mechanical abilities by building an accurate clock made of wood, at the age of 22. Some say it was the only clock of its kind in the Americas. The device continued to run for many years until it was destroyed by fire.

Banneker also used his mathematical knowledge to calculate the time of a solar eclipse. That knowledge was also useful in calculating longitude and latitude, methods for finding a place’s position on the globe.

As a young man, Banneker developed a working relationship with a surveyor named Andrew Ellicott. Surveying is the measuring and mapping of land. It was an important task in a young country where land records needed to be made. Many influential men, including George Washington, worked as surveyors.

In 1791, Ellicott was given the task of surveying land for the new federal district that would become the capital of the United States. Ellicott hired Banneker to help him. They worked to set accurate boundaries for the District of Columbia. Banneker is credited with positioning the starting point at Jones Point in Alexandria, Virginia.

Banneker put his abilities to use in other ways, too. He began publishing an almanac in 1792. Almanacs are books containing a wide range of information. They often include times and dates for astronomical events, like sunrise and sunset and for high and low tides. It was the kind of information that farmers or fishermen around the Chesapeake Bay would need and use.

In addition, Banneker’s almanac gave times for meetings of the courts, including the Supreme Court, as well as essays and other interesting writings.

(Mario Ritter wrote this story for VOA Learning English. Kelly J. Kelly and Kathleen Struck were the editors.)

 

  1. How was Benjamin’s father before he was born?
  2. Why was his life risky?
  3. How did Benjamin get his remarkable skill in Mathematics and Mechanics?
  4. Why was racial equality an unusual idea?
  5. How did people know his ability in mechanics?
  6. What are needed to find the missing ship?
  7. What is surveying needed for?
  8. What can we get from Almanac?

 

VOCAB

RELATED WORDS

Find three words which relate to one another from each group of letters below!  The words are taken from the text.

1.

L D E A V N I E C O E L O S S T R A
N A E E K G G F R N P E A D E I

3.

K L F K R A I L S C E S I
H A M A A L Y B N C M I T N I E
E H C I C I

5 .

M M E Q I C A R U O C U T I L A
N Y Y L A I T

6.

C T M R M A R E S P C A E A A U
U E
O D A U L B E U G O D E E L L I
N T G T T I
C C N O U I S T D D R R A L N Y
I T T
O F R O M O E E O W G O A T N N
B I K K D L N I
N D T E M F E S E A N R S H S I
U T I

TEXT TWO

 Read the text well, then do the instructions below!

Mohandas “Mahatma” Gandhi was India’s most important political and spiritual leader. He is honoured in India as Father of the Nation. His non-violent protests led to independence for India from the British. His beliefs and actions have inspired civil rights movements across the globe. He is an icon of world peace. His birthday, 2nd October, is commemorated worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence.

Gandhi was born in Gujarat, Western India, in 1869. He grew up surrounded by religious traditions of compassion, vegetarianism, and tolerance for all people. He got married at the age of 13. When he was 19, he went to London to study law. He returned to India to practice as a lawyer but was hampered by British officials, so he accepted a job in South Africa.

In South Africa, Gandhi faced discrimination and hardship wherever he went. He was treated as a third-class citizen by white people. This awakened in him questions about social justice and the role of the British in India. He returned to India in 1915, ready to put to work the concept of passive resistance he developed in South Africa.

Between 1916 and 1945, Gandhi campaigned tirelessly to set India free from British rule. He started by leading protests against British taxes and landlords, and walked across India encouraging non-cooperation with the British. He was arrested and imprisoned for creating unrest. Gandhi’s fame spread all over the nation. He was assassinated in 1948. Two years later, India became an independent republic. (Taken from Penguin Dorsier)

  1. Write Gandhi’s experiences in order!
  2. Tell what you can learn from what Gandhi’s toil!

 

VOCAB

Find the word in the text which is related to the explanation below!

(Explanation is taken from Encarta Dictionary)

  1. Relating to the soul or spirit
  2. To honor the memory of somebody or something in a ceremony
  3. Using physical force to injure someone or damage something
  4. Unfair treatment of one person or group, usually because of prejudice about race, ethnicity, age, religion or gender
  5. Series of events like speeches that are intended to persuade voters to vote for a specific politicians or party
  6. Relating to belief in religion, the teaching of religion or the practice of a religion
  7. To restrict the free movement or progress of somebody or something
  8. Refusal to accept or comply with something
  9. To encourage somebody to greater effort, enthusiasm, or creativity
  10. Sympathy for the suffering of  others, often including desire or help
  11. The acceptance of the differing views of other people. e.g. in religious or political matters
  12. To kill somebody, especially a political leader or public figure
  13. Amount of money paid to government and used to run the government
  14. Fairness or reasonableness, especially in the way people are treated or decisions are made
  15. Social or political discontent or protest that disrupts the established order

READING PRACTICES

 

Chapter 1 suggestion advice

BSE : 3.1/4.1/3/1.1 : 10 X 45 minutes

CHAPTER 1 : SUGGESTION, ADVICE, PRESENT AND FUTURE TENSES

Basic Competence

3.1 menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi interpersonal lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan menyarankan untuk melakukan atau tidak melakukan sesuatu dengan penjelasan, serta meresponsnya, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya.

4.1 Menyusun teks interaksi interpersonal lisandan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan menyarankan untuk melakukan atau tidak melakukan sesuatu dengan penjelasan, dan meresponnya dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks

   

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will learn about the difference between giving advice and giving suggestion in the form of interpersonal dialogues. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure used to make the whole dialogue meaningful.  Practicing how to compose those dialogues is needed to enhance your understanding on the social function and the text structure of those expressions.

Learning process

 GENERAL INSTRUCTION : You must ensure that you understand the material step by step. At the end, there will be an evaluation to test your level of understanding on the material. When your level is above the passing score, you may continue to the next material.

 BEFORE LEARNING, answer these questions!

  1. When you like someone and don’t know what to do, whom will you ask for the advice to? ____________________________________________
  1. What is the possible answer from the one you choose to give the advice? ____________________________________________
  1. Is it possible that he / she gives suggestion too? ____________________________________________
  1. What is the suggestion you have ever got from your friends, parents or teachers concerning this matter? ____________________________________________

After answering those questions, it is hoped that you can be familiar to what you are going to learn.

 WHILST LEARNING

THE MATERIAL YOU WILL LEARN RELATES TO YOUR DAILY EXPERIENCES. IT WON’T BE DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND. NOW, DO THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES!

 ACTIVITY ONE

READ THE DIALOGUES BELOW AND TELL WHAT THE UNDERLINED SENTENCES EXPRESS, ADVICE OR SUGGESTION!

The first Dialogue

Antman : Tony and team are as powerful as us, so what should we do?

Captain : I know. Let’s arrange strategies.

Antman : I don’t want to fight Black Widow.

Captain : Ok. So Iron man is the best choice, but you must be careful!

  The second dialogue

Sponge Bob : Patrick, you should brush your teeth every morning. The smell of your mouth is so bad!!!

Patrick : I don’t like toothpaste.

Sponge Bob : Don’t worry! I have this. Its taste is like krabby patty.

Patrick : Will this work on me?

Sponge Bob : Trust me! Try it now!

Patrick : Ok. Thank you!

 

What do you think the underlined sentence expresses?

_______________________________________________________


ACTIVITY TWO

NOW, PUT THE EXPRESSIONS BELOW INTO “ADVICE” or “SUGGESTION”

Shall we take some pictures?

Why don’t you stay here?

Why don’t we check the place?

You had better find another job!

Let’s find the shady place!
You shouldn’t shout!

Have you thought about visiting her?

What about going to the canteen?

How about buying some snacks?

Maybe you should try understanding him!

Have you tried sending her a letter?

If I were you, I would tell the truth!

Why not go to the library now?

My advice is to ask for her apology!

You ought to express your feelings to her!

It would be nice if we could go together.

 

DIFFERENTIATE THE SOCIAL FUNCTION OF ADVICE FROM THAT OF SUGGESTION. THEN, DISCUSS YOUR ANSWERS WITH THE TEACHER!

 You have learnt about the expressions of giving advice and suggestion. Now, you are going to learn about the grammatical structure of the expressions and the sentences commonly used in the dialogues.


 ACTIVITY THREE

ANALYZE THE PATTERN OF EACH SENTENCE IN ACTIVITY TWO, AND DRAW YOUR CONCLUSION HERE!

Shall we…..

Why don’t you….

Why don’t we …

You had better

Let’s …
You shouldn’t ….

Maybe you should …

If I were you, I would …

Why not …

You ought to …

It would be nice if we could ….


Have you thought about …

What …

How about …

Have you tried …

Maybe you should try …

 

ANALYZE THE TENSES WHICH ARE USED IN THOSE DIALOGUES. WRITE TWO OR THREE TENSES THAT CAN BE USED! 

___________________                   ___________________                  ___________________

 

DISCUSS YOUR ANSWER WITH YOUR FRIENDS OR TEACHER!

WHEN YOUR PATTERNS ARE CORRECT, DO THIS EXERCISE!

Change the verb in the bracket into the correct form in accordance to the tense of each sentence!

Onald  :    There(be) a Mobile Legend tournament next Saturday. Shall we join it?

Bagus  :    Wow …..This  (be) a big chance for us to train our skill. We  never (have) it. I (ask) Eno and Erick to be our team.

Onald  :    I agree. We’d better have more practices before the tournament. How about every day practicing for four hours?

Bagus  :    You (be) insane? We  (have) three tests this week. Two horns (grow) on her head and (plow) them into my body when knowing this. Besides, I (not want) to fail in the tests.

Onald  :    But, we (have) only one week. You (be) sure that we can win?

Bagus  :    It (not be) a matter of winning or losing. We just (need) to practice with the more professional ones.

 

CHECK YOUR ANSWERS AND ASK YOUR TEACHER’S CORRECTION ON THEM!

Make sure that you have understood the previous three activities because the knowledge will be used in the following activities.

 


 ACTIVITY FOUR

LEARN THE DIALOGUES ABOVE. PAY ATTENTION ON THE SUITABLE INTRODUCTION TO THE ADVICE OR RESPONSES TOWARD THE SUGGESTION.

HERE ARE THE EXAMPLES OF ACCEPTING THE SUGGESTION :

It’s great, It’s a brilliant idea,  It sounds good,  I’m up for it,  I’m in,  let’s do that,  Oh..it’s fine,  It sounds lovely

HERE ARE THE EXAMPLES OF DECLINING THE SUGGESTION :

I’m not sure, I don’t think it’s a good idea,  We’d better not, I’d rather,  I prefer to, I’m a bit tied up with

 

NOW, IN A GROUP OF THREE,  DESIGN A COOL COMIC STRIP CONTAINING GIVING ADVICE AND SUGGESTION. USE THE EXPRESSIONS IN TASK TWO TO EASE YOUR WORK.

CONTINUE DEVELOPING IT AS YOUR GROUP PROJECT.  IT MUST BE ACCOMPLISHED IN A MONTH.

Having practiced writing, you are going to perfect your oral skill by listening and speaking. Here are the activities.

 


ACTIVITY FIVE

LISTEN TO SOME DIALOGUES, WRITE SOME NOTES ON WHAT THE PERSONS IN THE DIALOGUE ARE TALKING. PRACTICE IT WITH YOUR FRIENDS.

LISTEN TO SOME OTHER DIALOGUES AND DECIDE WHETHER EACH DIALOGUE HAS THE CORRECT RESPONSE OR NOT.

Put a tick (√) to the “correct” column when the response is correct and a cross (x) to the “wrong” column when it’s wrong!

QUESTION CORRECT WRONG CORRECTION
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

 

DISCUSS YOUR ANSWER WITH THE CLASS.

  • LISTEN TO THE DIALOGUES AGAIN WHILE WRITING THE CORRECTION OF THE WRONG RESPONSES IN THE “CORRECTION” COLUMN.
  1. LISTEN TO THE DIALOGUE WHILE FILLING IN THE BLANK WITH THE CORRECT WORD!

 A    :    ____________ you vegetarian? You just ____________ rice and some vegetables.

B    :    Actually, I am not. However, all the seafood and meat ____________ allergens for me.

A    :    That bad? How long have you ____________ allergic to those kinds food?

B   :    I ____________ remember exactly when it ____________.

A    :    You couldn’t enjoy eating in the feasts. Maybe you should try ____________ a therapy for it. I have ever ____________ about this kind of therapy. In fact, our body system ____________ automatically and ____________ led by our sub-conscious mind. Unfortunately, our conscious mind ____________ much control on it. Therefore, when we think that this food ____________ allergic to our body, it ____________, like a command. My advice is to reverse such negative opinion. Now, think that no food can make you allergic.

B    :    Wow … that’s an excellent advice. I will ____________ it.

A    :    That’s a good decision, but remember that it ____________ do instantly, but ____________ a long process.

B    :    I understand. Thank you.

 

DISCUSS YOUR ANSWERS WITH THE CLASS.

It’s time to improve your speaking ability.


ACTIVITY SIX

TO REINFORCE YOUR UNDERSTANDING ON EXPRESSING ADVICE AND SUGGESTION, YOU WILL HAVE TO DO THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES :

First activity (class activity):

  1. Stand around the class
  2. Listen to your friend’s problem
  3. Give your advice to him or her
  4. Repeat this activity until every one has the chance to speak

 Second Activity (group activity):

  1. Make a group of four
  2. Compose a 3 minute – dialogue. you have 20 minutes to finish it
  3. Perform the dialogue in front of the class

 

FOR IMPROVING YOUR SPEAKING SKILL, YOU MAY INVITE THE TEACHER TO HAVE A SPONTANEOUS DIALOGUE WITH YOU. 

Remember that “Practicing makes perfect”

 CLOSING

TO ENSURE YOUR MASTERING THIS MATERIAL, PLEASE ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS!

  1. Differentiate the social function of giving advice from that of giving suggestion.
  2. Mention three expressions used to give advice and three others to give suggestion.
  3. Mention the tenses mostly used in the dialogue of giving advice and suggestion.

CHECK WITH YOUR TEACHER WHETHER YOUR ANSWERS ARE CORRECT OR NOT. THEN FILL IN THE TABLE BELOW!

SELF-REFLECTION ON THE MASTERY OF MATERIALS

No QUESTIONS Yes No
1. Can you differentiate giving advice from giving suggestion?
2. Do you understand the grammatical structure of the two expressions?
3. Can you apply the present and future tenses in sentences?
4. Can you compose a dialogue on those expressions?
5. Do you understand a dialogue on those expressions through listening?
6 Can you perform the dialogue on those expressions?

 

 MAKE SURE THAT ALL OF THE ITEMS ON THE TABLE HAVE BEEN MASTERED. IF NOT, YOU MUST REPEAT THE ONE THAT YOU HAVEN’T. THEN, ASK FOR A TEST TO THE TEACHER. REMEMBER, YOU MUST GET MORE THAN THE PASSING SCORE TO CONTINUE THE NEXT MATERIAL.

 

ENGLISH LITERATURE XI

 

Word Forming

WORD FORMING

I.            THE FORMING OF NOUN :

 1.1  by the adjective  +   -ness

  ADJECTIVE        NOUN   ADJECTIVE       NOUN
bitter

bright

clean

conscious

dark

eager

forgetful

good

great

 bitterness

brightness

cleanliness

consciousness

darkness

eagerness

forgetfulness

goodness

greatness

happy

kind

lonely

ready

sick

sudden

thick

thin

uneasy

 

happiness

kindness

loneliness

readiness

sickness

suddenness

thickness

thinness

uneasiness

 

1.2  by adjective ended in -ent  +  -ence                  

ADJECTIVE NOUN ADJECTIVE NOUN
Absent

Confident

Consequent

Competent

dependent

Absence

Confidence

Consequence

Competence

dependence

Evident

Impatient

Innocent

Different

obedient

Evidence

Impatience

innocence

difference

obedience

  

1.3  by adjective  ended in  -ant  +  -ance   

ADJECTIVE NOUN ADJECTIVE NOUN
Brilliant

Elegant

relevant

Brilliance

Elegance

relevance

Distant

Important

significant

Distance

Importance

significance

 

 1.4  by the verb  +   -ance / -ence 

VERB NOUN VERB NOUN
Accept

Allow

Attend

Disturb

ignore

maintain

repent

exist

confide

differ

prefer

Acceptance

Allowance

Attendance

disturbance

ignorance

maintenance

repentance

existence

confidence

difference

preference

Accord

Annoy

Avoid

guide

inherit

perform

resemble

excel

coincide

depend

refer

Accordance

Annoyance

Avoidance

guidance

inheritance

performance

resemblance

excellence

coincidence

dependence

reference

  

1.5    by the verb  +  -ion / -ation / -sion / -tion 

VERB NOUN VERB NOUN
Act

add

connect

destroy

discuss

examine

inform

Action

addition

connection

destruction

discussion

examination

information

Abbreviate

communicate

co-operate

describe

divide

educate

introduce

Abbreviation

communication

co-operation

description

division

education

introduction

 

 

  1.6     by the verb  +  -ment  

VERB NOUN VERB NOUN
arrange

encourage

govern

manage

punish

move

arrangement

encouragement

government

management

punishment

movement

develop

enforce

improve

measure

pay

state

development

enforcement

improvement

measurement

payment

statement

 

   1.7     by verb +  -or

VERB NOUN VERB NOUN
act

conquer

direct

illustrate

operate

actor

conqueror

director

illustrator

operator

collect

detect

distribute

instruct

translate

collector

detector

distributor

instructor

translator

 

 

 1.8 by another noun  +  mis-

NOUN NOUN NOUN NOUN
chance

rule

fortune

print

mischance

misrule

misfortune

misprint

management

use

application

rule

mismanagement

misuse

misapplication

misrule

 

1.9. by another noun   +   dis  –

NOUN NOUN NOUN NOUN
agreement

honor

order

respect

disagreement

dishonor

disorder

disrespect

honesty

obedience

pleasure

trust

dishonesty

disobedience

displeasure

distrust

 

1.10  by  another noun  +  – an  ;  -ian ;  – ician 

NOUN NOUN NOUN NOUN
America

Canada

Jamaica

music

statistics

history

American

Canadian

Jamaican

musician

statistician

historian

Australia

Dominica

Mexico

magic

politics

electricity

Australian

Dominican

Mexican

magician

politician

electrician

  

1.11  by another  noun  +   – ship

 ( STATE, CONDITION, QUALITY, NUMBER )

NOUN NOUN NOUN NOUN
Acquaintance

leader

horseman

seaman

acquaintanceship

leadership

horsemanship

seamanship

Citizen

friend

member

marksman

salesman

Citizenship

friendship

membership

marksmanship

salesmanship

 

2. The forming of ADJECTIVE  :

 2.1.   by noun  +   -ful  

NOUN ADJECTIVE NOUN ADJECTIVE
beauty

doubt

hope

peace

respect

use

fear

faith

beautiful

doubtful

hopeful

peaceful

respectful

useful

fearful

faithful

care

help

meaning

power

skill

cheer

mercy

pain

careful

helpful

meaningful

powerful

skillful

cheerful

merciful

painful

 

 2.2.  by  noun  + -less  

NOUN ADJECTIVE NOUN ADJECTIVE
care

fear

help

meaning

pain

careless

fearless

helpless

meaningless

painless

cheer

faith

hope

mercy

power

cheerless

faithless

hopeless

merciless

powerless

 

  2.3.  by noun   +  -y 

NOUN ADJECTIVE NOUN ADJECTIVE
chill

fun

hill

rain

salt

stone

sun

chilly

funny

hilly

rainy

salty

stony

sunny

cloud

grass

mud

rust

sand

storm

wind

cloudy

grassy

muddy

rusty

sandy

stormy

windy

  

2.4.  by  noun  +  -ly 

NOUN ADJECTIVE NOUN ADJECTIVE
coward

friend

miser

day

state

cowardly

friendly

miserly

daily

stately

father

love

order

earth

world

fatherly

lovely

orderly

earthly

worldly

  

2.5    by noun  + -ical 

NOUN ADJECTIVE NOUN ADJECTIVE
botany

critic

grammar

identity

music

nonsense

botanical

critical

grammatical

identical

musical

nonsensical

classic

economy

history

logic

politics

tropic

classical

economical

historical

logical

political

tropical

  

2.6.  by  noun +  -ful 

NOUN ADJECTIVE NOUN ADJECTIVE
boast

forget

mourn

resent

sin

boastful

forgetful

mournful

resentful

sinful

dread

hate

play

shame

watch

dreadful

hateful

playful

shameful

watchful

  

2.7.    by verb  +   -able 

NOUN ADJECTIVE NOUN ADJECTIVE
accept

depend

enjoy

read

understand

acceptable

dependable

enjoyable

readable

understandable

compare

drink

honor

respect

wash

comparable

drinkable

honorable

respectable

washable

 

 2.8.  by another adjective  +  il- ; im- ; in- ; ir-

       ( Mean the contrary of the original one) 

 ADJECTIVE ADJECTIVE ADJECTIVE ADJECTIVE
legal

logical

moral

perfect

probable

competent

efficient

responsible

illegal

illogical

immoral

imperfect

improbable

incompetent

inefficient

irresponsible

literate

mature

patient

possible

capable

dependent

expensive

regular

illiterate

immature

impatient

impossible

incapable

independent

inexpensive

irregular

  

2 . 9.      by another adjective   +    dis- 

 ADJECTIVE ADJECTIVE ADJECTIVE ADJECTIVE
agreeable

loyal

pleasing

honorable

disagreeable

disloyal

displeasing

dishonorable

honest

order

respectful

dishonest

disorder

disrespectful

 

 2 . 10.   by another adjective   +  over-  

ADJECTIVE ADJECTIVE ADJECTIVE ADJECTIVE
active

critical

anxious

ripe

excited

 

overactive

overcritical

overanxious

overripe

overexcited

 

abundant

confident

generous

serious

 

overabundant

overconfident

overgenerous

over serious

 

 

 

 III.  The Forming of Verb :

 1. by another verb + Un-   (the meaning is contrary to the original one) 

 VERB VERB VERB VERB
burden

dress

fold

lock

roll

 

unburden

undress

unfold

unlock

unroll

 

button

fasten

load

pack

wrap

 

unbutton

unfasten

unload

unpack

unwrap

 

  

  1. 2. by another verb +  re-
VERB VERB VERB VERB
call

group

make

organize

play

recall

regroup

remake

reorganize

replay

fuel

insure

name

think

print

refuel

reinsure

rename

rethink

reprint

 

  1. 3. by another verb    +  mis- 
VERB VERB VERB VERB
calculate

lead

pronounce

carry

date

 

miscalculate

mislead

mispronounce

miscarry

misdate

 

inform

trust

understand

spell

count

 

misinform

mistrust

misunderstand

misspell

miscount

 

  

3.4.       by another verb  +  dis- 

      VERB     VERB      VERB      VERB
arm

continue

obey

please

connect

 

disarm

discontinue

disobey

displease

disconnect

 

close

like

organize

trust

prove

 

disclose

dislike

disorganize

distrust

disprove

 

  

  1. 5. by another verb  + over- 
 VERB VERB VERB VERB
burden

cook

do

heat

stay

 

overburden

overcook

overdo

overheat

overstay

 

charge

dress

eat

produce

sleep

 

overcharge

overdress

overeat

overproduce

oversleep

 

 

 3.6.      by  adjective  +   -en  

ADJECTIVE VERB ADJECTIVE VERB
bright

flat

less

sad

short

thick

wide

 

brighten

flatten

lessen

sadden

shorten

thicken

widen

 

dark

hard

red

sharp

sick

weak

deep

 

darken

harden

redden

sharpen

sicken

weaken

deepen

 

 

 SOME FORMATIONS WITH UP-  and  DOWN- 

downfall     [n]

downright   [adj.]

downtown  [adv.]

downpour   [c.n.]

downhill     [adv.]

downhearted [adj.]

downstairs  [adv.]

uproar   [un]

upcountry [adj./adv.]

upstairs  [adj./adv]

uplift  [v]

upbringing  [un]

upstart  [cn]

uphill  [adj./adv]

uptown   [adj./adv]

uproot  [v]

upkeep  [un ]

upland  [n]

upright  [adj./adv]

uphold [v]

 

SOME FORMATIONS WITH   OUT-  

outbreak  [cn]

outflow  [cn]

outline [cn]

outgrow  [v]

outdoor  [adj.]

out-of-door [adj.]

outstanding [adj.]

outcome  [cn]

outlaw   [n]

outlook  [cn[

outlive [v]

outgoing   [adj.]

out-of-the law  [adj.]

outdoors  [adv.]

outcry  [cn]

outlet  [n]

outdistance  [v]

outweigh  [v]

outlying [adj.]

outspoken  [adj.]

 

 

 

GRAMMAR 

Chapter Five

CHAPTER FIVE

Task One

Comparative and Superlative

Correct the sentences below!

  1. The more illiterate the people are, the more easy they are influenced by the hoaxes.
  2. This year weather is the worse in the last ten years.
  3. The individual terrorists are the dangerous than the communal ones.
  4. What the leader says isn’t true as what the fact is.
  5. The effect of the raising temperature affects the plant at most.
  6. As the furniture is made of the most fine wood, it can last more than 10 years.
  7. The most regularly we do exercises, the most healthy we will be.
  8. He does his job more and more reluctant because the situation in his office isn’t conducive.
  9. The actor who learns how to act through a theater acts naturally than anyone who never learn to act.
  10. Seeing the one we love in grief is the most painful than feeling sad of ourselves.
  11. Be careful to that kind of snake for it is more poisonous of all.
  12. Mr. Ire punishes his students as properly than Mr. Ear, so the students accept it.
  13. This is the more astonishing creation that I ever know.
  14. Some people choose the information to be spread out to their friends carefully than others do.
  15. The nearer gas station is about one kilometer from this place.

Task Two

Active and Passive sentences

State whether the sentences below are correct or incorrect!

  1. All of his thoughts are often written on his blog or journals.
  2. The pirates’ treasure has hidden in such a long time that no one believes its existence.
  3. His series of adventures were recorded and mad into a wonderful story.
  4. They touched by their children’s honesty toward their love to their parents.
  5. You should chosen a good companion in your journey of life.
  6. Everyone has to gained as much knowledge as possible for leading them to the better life.
  7. The creative young entrepreneurs are going to awarded for their continuous innovation.
  8. It is useful for all of the students to have an outing class to know more about their surroundings.
  9. It found out that no one understands the command written on their guiding book.
  10. We fear that we will threatened again for we still don’t agree to the leader’s policy.
  11. Don’t worry! Your house will guarded 24 hours by some policemen.
  12. No secret will reveal if everyone keeps their words.
  13. The woman was chosen to win as she sang with her heart.
  14. Indonesian have trusted the government’s commitment to never leave their people in trouble.
  15. The people expected to be watchful to the strangers entering their area.

Task Three

Perfect tenses versus Past tenses

Correct the sentences below!

  1. The travelers were enjoying the scenery from the top of the mountain for almost three hours when the rain fell hard.
  2. The promotion of some employees has been discussed this morning.
  3. We were here almost for an hour. We feel bored.
  4. The park has been full of people when a bomb exploded.
  5. The judge decided already to send him to the jail when there was another proof saying that he was innocent.
  6. Doing chores had been the wives’ solely duty but husbands willingly help them now.
  7. People have had a wrong concept on raising children in the past.
  8. Intelligence quotient had been believed to bring success in the future years ago.
  9. Some coffee bars developed the coffee machine to extract the fruits since last year.
  10. He confessed his wrong doing before we asked him about it.
  11. Some families recycled their sewage since they knew that it would become the water pollutant.
  12.  Indonesian chefs promoted Indonesian traditional food to other countries since five years ago.
  13. We had been evaluating the project while the director was checking the infrastructure.
  14. More surprisingly, they hadn’t been the professionals on the case that was judged in the court yesterday.
  15. I have been fined by the police last month.

Task Four

Using the past with present : I understand why he was pretty angry to us

Choose the correct sentences!

  1. He explained the plants are coniferous.
  2. He said that he was quite angry to you.
  3. The boss called me because I am often late.
  4. She has known that you were with another girl last night.
  5. He becomes sick because he eats too much chilly food.
  6. The students often say that they didn’t prepare the lesson the day before.
  7. Although he left earlier, he still misses the train.
  8. He planned that she will hold a meeting for the reptile lovers.
  9. She asks me why I don’t call her last night.
  10. The students are still disappointed to what the teacher decided this morning.
  11. The naturalist told that nature provides the creatures’s needs.
  12. Since the company was about to collapse, the manager is looking for another company to merge this one.
  13. The activities which were held last semester are successful.
  14. Where she took pictures isn’t a problem for us.
  15. We are familiar with the books which are written in the twentieth century.

Task Five

Singular and plural Nouns (+ the irregular ones)

Correct the sentences!

  1. The most twenty wonderful church in the world are mostly in Europe.
  2. Her wishes is only having a loyal husband.
  3. A lot of leave were falling down when the wind blew so hard.
  4. I have never visited another country.
  5. The manager has signed some memorandum which deal to his business.
  6. That data is taken from this magazine.
  7. I need to talk to the woman who want to be the volunteers for this charity.
  8. The criteria which is written in the brochure suit to your quality.
  9. Where are the child going?
  10. My left shoes is gone.
  11. I hate entering this basement due to a lot of mouse.
  12. Please, all of you take care of yourself!
  13. Indonesian hero fought bravely for our independence.
  14. Big match always attract many spectator.
  15. A strange natural phenomena often occurs during the dry season.

Task Six

Countable and uncountable Nouns

Choose the correct sentences!

  1. Our happiness influence others’
  2. We need a lot of coastal sand for this big aquarium.
  3. A few chemical solution is needed to clean these spots.
  4. Your glass are suitable to your face.
  5. We need two glasses of water to soften the dough.
  6. Don’t put too many salt to the soup!
  7. We don’t have to bring a lot of baggage.
  8. Do you have plenty of paper for printing this long report?
  9. The clothes looks elegant on you.
  10. The model for shampoo must have beautiful hair.
  11. There are some chances for the job seekers to show their competence.
  12. Too little words in advertisement may confuse the readers as the information is not enough.
  13. The less education people have, the less opportunities they have to get a good job.
  14. Shall we ask some advices to the teacher about our stand?
  15. Many fake information is found in the internet or social media.

Task Seven

Pronouns

Correct the pronouns!

  1. The educators told he didn’t want to force the students to do what he wanted.
  2. There will be some information about the competitions. The students are eager to follow it.
  3. The houses in this complex are designed by a young architect. Its model is unique.
  4. Discipline and consistency are being trained to the young people. Young people must have it to survive.
  5. The famines in the countries with the prolonged political conflicts can never be solved due to its government’s disability to stop the conflicts.
  6. Annie and Paul agreed to sell their only furniture although they still love them.
  7. Paul’s typescripts were on his table last night but this morning he lost it.
  8. Some famous authors agree that “Monalisa” can inspire his new novel on art because he has a unique background.
  9. A few animal species have almost been extinct. Its number is less than 200 in the world. Therefore, the government must conserve it.
  10. Every item in this mall is qualified, but its price is competitive enough.
  11. Before the data are revised, we must have it complete.
  12. The beads which you will use to make a necklace are like the real pearls. It is gleaming.
  13. The beauty of this beach is due to their white and soft sand. Visitors like lying on them the whole day.
  14. The formulae that you told need revising because we cannot prove it right.
  15. The texts are written in English, so it will be good for the students to practice his English.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES FOR XII