Person who


who* / whom




Thing which





of which

*who as object is commonly used in informal speaking.

We use Relative Pronoun as conjunctions.

1.1.1.        PERSON      Subject ( * The subject of the clause ) : WHO

e.g.           The police have arrested the man.

                    He robbed some banks in our city.

The combination of the two sentences is :

The  police have arrested the man who robbed some  banks in our city.


The girl is very intelligent.

She wants to continue her study abroad.

The combination is  :

The girl who wants to continue her study abroad is  very intelligent.

* What is underlined is  called “Adjective Clause” as it explains the noun. Object  of  a verb :  WHOM (in formal uses), WHO (used in conversation)

( * We can omit the relative pronoun  )

e.g.           The man is learning a weather map seriously.

We want to meet him.

The combination is :

The  man whom we want to meet is learning a weather  map seriously. ( = The man we want to meet is learning a weather map  seriously.)

Mr. Andi, the director of this company will meet the men.

He has employed them for five years.

The combination is :

      Mr. Andi, the director of this company will meet the men whom he has employed for five years. ( =  Mr. Andi, the director of this company will meet the men he has employed for five years.) Object of preposition : WHOM

e.g.          The man is the richest in this town.

I spoke to him yesterday.

The combination is :

The man whom I spoke to yesterday is the richest in this town.  (= The man to whom I spoke yesterday is the richest in this town. = The  man   I spoke to yesterday is the richest  in  this town.)


We don’t trust the salesman.

We bought these goods from him.

The combination is :

We  don’t trust the salesman whom we bought these  goods from. ( = We  don’t trust the salesman from whom we  bought  these goods =We don’t trust the salesman  we bought these goods from.)    Possessive : WHOSE

e.g.           The people must pay a high tax.

The people’s salaries are more than fifty millions a year.

The combination is :

The people  whose  salaries are more than fifty  millions  a year must pay a high tax.


The film is about a spy.

His wife betrays him.

The combination is :

The film is about a spy whose wife betrays him.


I know the man.

You borrowed his book.

The combination is :

I know the man whose book you borrowed.


1.1.2.        THINGS Subject : WHICH

e.g.           This is the picture.

It caused a great sensation.

The combination is :

This is the picture which caused a great  sensation.


The stairs are rather slippery.

They lead to the cellar.

The combination is :

The stairs which lead to the cellar are rather slippery. of a verb : WHICH

e.g.          The car broke down after five kilometers.

I hired it.

The combination is :

The car which I hired broke down after five kilometers. ( =  The car  I hired broke down after five kilometers.)


We hate the lesson.

Mr. A teaches it.

The combination is :

We hate the lesson which Mr. A teaches. ( = We hate the lesson  Mr. A teaches.) of preposition : WHICH

e.g.          The ladder began to slip.

I was standing on it.

The combination is  :

The ladder which I was standing on began to slip. ( =  The ladder on which I was standing  began to slip = The ladder  I was standing on began to slip.)


We need a room.

We can sleep in it.

The combination is :

We need a room which we can sleep in. ( = We need a room in which we can sleep =  We need a room  we can sleep in.) We can replace “in/at which (of place )” with “WHERE”.

e.g.           We need a room in which we can sleep.

We need a room which we can sleep in.

We need a room where we can sleep.


The  bus  station at which I saw him for  the  first time has been renovated.

The  bus  station which I saw him for  the  first time has been renovated at.

The  bus station where I saw him for the first  time has been renovated. “in/at/on which (of time)” can be replaced by “WHEN”.

e.g.           The  day on which we had a first date was very  wonderful.

The  day which we had a first date was very  wonderful on.

The day when we had a first date was very wonderful.


I  can’t remember the year in which I got  the  very terrible accident.

I  can’t remember the year which I got  the  very terrible accident in.

I can’t remember the year when I got the very terrible accident.    “WHY” can replace “for which”

e.g.           The  reason  for which they cancel the game  can  be understood.

The  reason why they cancel the game can  be  understood.    Possessive : WHOSE

e.g.           Living in a special house will be horrible.

Its walls are made of glass.

The combination is :

Living in a special house whose walls are made of  glass will be horrible.




Non-defining  relative clauses are placed before nouns which  are definite  already.  Therefore, they do not define the  nouns  but  add  some  information only.  Unlike defining  clauses, they can be omitted without causing  confusion and  are separated from their nouns by commas. “THAT” cannot  be used  in this construction and object relative pronouns can’t  be left out.

1.2.1.        Persons subject : WHO

e.g.      –     Gita,  who  is  the most cute child in  my  family,  is trying to stand by herself.

-I  need to talk to my manager, who gave a list of  some recommendations. object of a verb : WHO, WHOM

e.g.      –     My brother, whom my best friend loves, becomes a  chief of International Engineer Organization.

-Everyone suspected Joe, whom they saw inside that room. object of a preposition : WHOM

e.g.      –     Mr. T, with whom I have an experiment, is very intelligent.

-Don’t you know her sister, to whom we gave our report ? possessive : WHOSE

e.g.       –    Ditto, whose club won the Mathematics competition, has a certain project for teenagers.

-Would  you like to inform Mr Andre, whose firm  is  the biggest in our region?


1.2.2.        Things subject : WHICH

e.g.       –    My dog, which fell from the fence yesterday, is getting better now.

-Look at this book, which has interesting cover! object of a verb : WHICH

e.g.      –     These  data, which we found in his shelf, are not  complete.

-Tell me about your new piano, which your father gave on your birthday!  object of preposition : WHICH

e.g.      –     This  pipe,  through  which the  gas  passes,  is  safe enough.

-Everyone knows Bali, in which we can enjoy some beautiful panorama. possessive : WHOSE

e.g.      –     His house, whose garden is very impressing, was visited by some artists yesterday.

-We prefer this machine, whose speed is amazing.


  1. N O U N C L A U S E

The conjunctions that  are used for connecting the main clause and the  sub clause are :that  and  all of wh-questions such as, who, where, which, etc.

The positions of  Noun Clause in a sentence are :

2.1.            as subject

e.g.        –   That  she could win the first prize in that  competition makes everyone surprised.

-What I wrote contains many mistakes.

2.2.            as object of a verb

e.g.        –   Oh  …  My God! I forget that I have to  call  him  up before dinner.

-Don’t you know who has just met your parents?

  • Some verbs which can be followed by “that clause” are:

admit, agree, be afraid, be anxious, believe, confess, declare, decide,  expect,  fear, feel, forget,  guarantee,  hear,  hope, imagine,  inform, insist, know, mean, promise, prove,  realize, suggest, think, wish.

2.3.            as object of a preposition

e.g.       –    Listen! The headmaster has agreed to what we planned.

-The government asks about where the money has gone.

2.4.            as complement of to be

e.g.      –    My  question  is whose car is parking in  front  of  our gate.

-The  problem is that no one will be able to  follow  the increasing of prices.



3.1.            Adverb clause of time

The conjunctions are after, as soon as , when,  while,  until,  before, since, whenever.

e.g.      –     He will tell us about the result of the meeting when  he arrives.

-He went to bed after he had finished his work.

-They  had  fixed the car before they  started  on  their vacation.

-He won’t take a rest until he gets tired.

-Her child was crying while she was talking on the phone. (simultaneous actions)

-She  cut her finger while she was preparing the  dinner. (interrupted action)

-I have looked at a lot of apartments since I moved here in March.

-I’ll send you a cable as soon as I arrive there.

-We are ready to welcome you whenever you intend to  stay here.


3.2.            Adverb clause of reason

The conjunctions are because, as, since, for

e.g.         –  She doesn’t like oysters because they make her sick.

-As / Since they have heard so much about him, they  want to meet him now.

-They came indoors for it started to rain.


3.3.            Adverb clause of concession

The conjunctions are although, though, even  though, even if

e.g.    –      I couldn’t get a taxi although I was in a hurry.

-Even  though  he always studies hard, he isn’t  able  to understand trigonometry.

-I’ll eat my dessert even if it makes me fat.


3.4.            Adverb clause of purpose

The conjunctions are so that,  in order that

e.g.       –    The notices are written in several languages so that  foreign tourists can understand them.

-We  should read much in order that we are able to  catch up with the information of the new technology.


3.5.            Adverb clause of place

The conjunctions are where, wherever

e.g.       –    We will find him wherever he goes.

-We  have  decided  to have a meeting where  no  one  can disturb us.


3.6.            Adverb clause of condition

The conjunctions are if, unless, on condition that

e.g.         –  We  will leave for Surabaya today if they have  finished checking all of the data.

-He will get sick again unless he gets a lot of sleep  =   He will get sick again if he does not get a  lot  of  sleep.

-We  may have fun outdoors on condition that  the  rain stops.


3.7.            Adverb clause of manner

The conjunctions are as, as if

e.g.      –     You should do it well as your director ordered.

-Look  at those boys! They are running as if there were  a dog running after them.


3.8.            Adverb clause of comparison

The conjunctions are  as … as,  than

e.g.         –  He slept as soundly as the baby does.

-His  explanation is more understandable than I  listened from the television.


3.9.            Adverb clause of result

The conjunctions are so … that, such … that, so

e.g.        –   This  baggage is so heavy that I can’t carry it  by  myself.

-The host welcomed us so warmly that we felt  comfortable to stay there.

-It was such a huge crowd that I got lost yesterday.

-I  do  not feel well, so I want to go home  and  take  a rest.




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