- BOTH ; BOTH…….AND…….
Both (means having the number of two ) can be used in two ways :
In the noun group
e.g. – Both (of) my students have been chosen for the contest.
(note: it can be followed by definite article + noun, possessive + noun, or demonstrative + noun. of is optional)
– Both dictionaries are very useful for your learning.
( note: of can’t be used if there is no article, possessive or demonstrative )
– This parcel is given to both of us / to us both.
(note : object pronoun only )
in the verb group
e.g. – They are both identical.
– The two surgeons both did the operation well.
– You have both finished your duty.
– The workers will both have painted the rooms by next week.
BOTH can be used as pronoun
e.g. – These clothes look nice and fit to you. Do you want to take both?
( * both refers to the clothes)
– I am really impressed to their performances. Both are amazing.
( * both refers to the performances )
BOTH … AND ….. is used to express a combination of two things :
e.g. – She has both the intelligence and the beauty.
( note: the combination of nouns)
– Your decision is both impressing and surprising.
( note: the combination of adjectives )
– She both manages the administration and looks after the orphans.
( note: the combination of verb phrases )
- NOT ONLY ….. BUT ALSO …….
It can be used with both noun phrases and verb phrases.
e.g. – The police will not only interrogate the criminal but also look for other evidences.
– You should show not only your intelligence but also your good ethic.
- EITHER ; EITHER ….. OR ; AND ….. EITHER
Either is a determiner when it is used with noun. Only singular noun and verb can follow it. It means one or the other.
e.g. – Either kind of training is suitable to encourage him.
– Either chapter is readable enough for you because they have been revised.
As pronoun Either can be used alone or with of + plural noun phrase, but still has to be followed by singular verb.
e.g. – Has either of your children visited you?
– A : Would you like to use this or that one?
B : I don’t mind either.
Either ….. or can be used to express two ( sometimes more) alternatives or possibilities.
e.g. – The visitors can either see the sophisticated airplanes or become the passengers of it.
– Either first, second or third chapter is difficult to understand.
Two negative sentences that are identical except for their subjects can be joined by using and …. either . Pay attention to the construction of using it.
e.g. – The developer doesn’t want any loss.
The consumer doesn’t want any loss.
The combination of the two sentences is The developer doesn’t want any loss, and the consumer doesn’t either.
– He isn’t at his office.
His two assistants aren’t at his office.
The combination is He isn’t at his office, and his two assistants aren’t either
- NEITHER ; NEITHER ….. NOR …… ; AND NEITHER
The way of using Neither is the same as of Either, but the meaning is different. Neither has negative one.
e.g. – Neither applicant is suitable to this job
– Neither of those animals gets the proper care here. They will die soon.
– I have seen neither of them lately
– Receiving telephones, typing letters, filling documents are secretary’s job. Neither will be my preference in finding a job.
Neither ….. nor ….. is used to join two negative ideas.( The opposite of both …. and )
e.g. – Neither mathematics nor physics is easy
– The rich neither cares for the prosperity of the community in this slum area nor tries to pay a visit to see how they try to survive..
Another way to join two negative sentences that are identical except for their subjects is “and neither” construction.
e.g. – The technology in agriculture hasn’t been developed.
The technology in transportation hasn’t been developed.
The combination of those two sentences is The technology in agriculture hasn’t been developed, and neither has the technology of transportation
– The first group couldn’t do it well.
The second one couldn’t do it well.
The combination is The first group couldn’t do it well, and neither could the second one.
- AND ….. TOO
It is used to join two identical affirmative sentences except for their subjects.
e.g. – They will have come back before night.
Your son will have come back before night.
The combination of those two sentences is They will have come back before night, and your son will too.
– He always comes on time.
His staff always comes on time.
The combination is He always comes on time, and his staff always do too.
- AND SO ……..
Another way of joining the two identical affirmative sentences except for their subjects is “and so …..”
e.g. – I used to see the film twice a week.
My brother used to see the film twice a week.
The combination of those sentences is I used to see the film twice a week, and so did my brother.
– The people in city can enjoy entertainment served by many television stations.
The villagers can enjoy entertainment served by many television stations.
The combination is The people in city can enjoy entertainment served by many television stations, and so can the villagers.