Chapter 5 : Short Story, Clauses and Participles

CHAPTER 5 : SHORT STORY, CLAUSES and PARTICIPLES

BSE : 3.5/4.5/3/5.5

Basic Competence
3.5 membedakan fungsisosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan beberapa teks naratif lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkai tcerita pendek, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya

(XII) 3.2 menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait benda dengan pewatas berupa sifat, jenis, dan fakta keadaan/kejadian, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan prepositional phrase, adjective clause: finite dan nonfinite)

(XII) 3.7 menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisandantulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait konsesi, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan even though, although)

4.5 Menangkap makna secara kontekstual terkait dengan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks naratif, lisan dan tulis, terkait cerita pendek

(XII) 4.2 Menyusun teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait benda dengan pewatas berupa sifat, jenis, dan fakta keadaan/kejadian, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks

(XII) 4.7 menyusun teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait konsesi, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will learn about the difference between short stories and anecdote or spoof. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure used to understand the whole story.  Practicing how to compose a short story is needed to enhance your understanding on its social function and its text structure.

GENERAL INSTRUCTION : You must ensure that you understand the material step by step. At the end, there will be an evaluation to test your level of understanding on the material. When your level is above the passing score, you may continue to the next material. Before you ask for the evaluation, please ensure yourself that you have already mastered the whole material in this chapter.

BEFORE LEARNING

Ask the teacher a short story, or you can find your own. It should be about 15 to 25 pages. You may have the same title as your friend’s .


WHILST LEARNING

Activity One

When you finish reading the story, write some conflicts and their solution on a piece of paper. You may have a discussion with the friend whose story has the same title as yours. Then, show your work to the teacher.

 

Activity Two

To understand a story, surely you need to learn the grammatical structures. SO, let’s learn Clauses and Participles. Please open your grammar book to learn about them before doing the exercises below!

  ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

 JOIN THE TWO SENTENCES WITH THE PROPER RELATIVE PRONOUN INTO A COMPLEX SENTENCE WITH ADJECTIVE CLAUSE

1. The princess looked for the plant. It could heal the queen’s rare sickness.

2. Jane Foster was teleported to another world at a time. Malekith attacked Asgard at that time.

      1. Sasuke doesn’t want to attack Naruto. Everyone is amazed on his intelligence and power.
      2. Dursley gave Harry a small room. He slept there.
      3. Fairy Godmother fulfilled Cinderella a wonderful gown. She wore it to the Prince’s party.
      4. The snowman becomes alive. Anna and Elsa always play with it.
      5. The Kings finally died in grief. His daughter was kidnapped.
      6. Po is chosen as the dragon warrior. His father is a crane.
      7. Arlo, the good dinosaur, is weaker and smaller than his brother. He always teases him and makes him upset.
      8. King T’Chala fought with the man. His father left him outside Wakanda.
      9. Black Pearl was sinking. Jack Sparrow had been looking for it for some years.
      10. Beast gave Belle his large library. He spent most of his time there.
      11. Mavis finally got married with her fiancé, Johnny. Her father is a Dracula.
      12. A Viking village located on a remote island. Dragons periodically stole livestock.
      13. The Maleficent’s curse to the baby can be broken. Maleficent gave it during its christening.
        1. NOUN CLAUSE

COMPLETE THE SENTENCE WITH THE CORRECT NOUN CLAUSE!

          1. The Queen is still confused about whom …
          2. What… made Thor so angry and wanted to kill him.
          3. How… made Naruto disappointed.
          4. Harry Potter was still confused about who …
          5. The step mother didn’t care about what …
          6. Elsa is afraid that …
          7. Rapunzel was imprisoned in where …
          8. Po and his friends are fighting with whose …
          9. That … disappoints Arlo.
          10. Wakanda people believe that …
          11. Where … is known as the mysterious island.
          12. Why … confuses the Beast.
          13. That … inspired Dracula to be more humane.
          14. Hiccup couldn’t ensure himself how many …
          15. The King remembered that …

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

FILL IN THE BLANK WITH THE APPROPRIATE CONJUNCTION!

          1. Naruto has become the seventh Hokage since …
          2. Since Thor didn’t want to be a king, …
          3. The princess was such a brave woman that …
          4. Malfoy, the heir of Slytherin, fought as viciously as …
          5. Cinderella didn’t feel sad although …
          6. If Elsa didn’t learn to control her power, …
          7. Rapunzel’s hair is so long and strong that …
          8. Po won’t win the fight with Tai Lung unless …
          9. Arlo’s father fell into the deep river while …
          10. T’Chala could become a king on condition that …
          11. Though…, Sparrow craves revenge to Barbosa and his crew.
          12. Lumière tries to help Beast become more civil for Belle so that …
          13. Dracula takes Dennis to where…
          14. Hiccup shot down a Night Fury, an extremely rare and dangerous dragon when …
          15. Maleficent had a pair of feathery fairy wings so …

 PRESENT PARTICIPLE

CHANGE THE CLAUSES INTO THE PRESENT PARTICIPLES!

          1. Because the palace is on the top of hill, it is difficult for the enemies to attack.
          2. After Thor had left, Odin’s form transformed into Loki, who was alive and impersonated Odin.
          3. The teacher who taught Naruto admired his effort to be the next Hokage.
          4. The girl who plays with animals everyday knows the language of each animal.
          5. Ron and Hermione froze while they were watching what Harry was doing.
          6. While she was playing with her sister, Anna was creating snow for them to play with.
          7. While Rapunzel was waiting for her step mother to climb, she was surprised by a man who climbed with her hair.
          8. The restaurant which serves the most delicious noodle is owned by Po’s father.
          9. Since Arlo doesn’t have a father anymore, he feels that no one protects him.
          10. The woman who becomes T’Chala’s commander is skillful and powerful.
          11. While Jack and Barbossa were in duel, Will broke the curse by returning the last coin and offering his blood.
          12. Pot who has a loving, and motherly feel helps Belle to be comfortable in the Beast’s castle.
          13. Because Dennis has yet to grow his fangs, he will be sent to California to be treated there.
          14. While he is observing Toothless’s behavior, Hiccup becomes increasingly proficient in subduing the captive dragons during training nonviolently.
          15. Because the three pixies that were assigned to look after Aurora proved to be incompetent, they were dismissed.

         

      1. CHANGE THE UNDERLINED PHRASES INTO CLAUSES!
        1. Being a nobleman, Prince William has to be careful in speaking and behaving.
        2. Cradling Loki in his arms, Thor promised to tell their father of his sacrifice.
        3. The nicest ramen selling restaurant often let Naruto to eat it for free.
        4. Leading to the entrance hall, Ron was telling about the secret chamber.
        5. The step sister treating Cinderella as her servant didn’t want to share the food with her.
        6. Feeling afraid to harm her sister, Elsa didn’t want to play with her anymore.
        7. The speaking frog accompanies Rapunzel every day.
        8. Training Po to be the warrior dragon, Oogway was advising him not to show up his power.
        9. Having got along for some time, Arlo and Spot become friends.
        10. Black Panther’s suit having high technology protection is an astonishing armor.
        11. Stealing the gold, Barbossa and his crew became undead and unable to feel physical pleasure.
        12. Belle learns of what happened and goes to the castle, attempting to release her father.
        13. Believing Dennis is a “late fanger”, Dracula asks his friends to help train Dennis to become a monster, to no avail.
        14. Hiccup, having won dragon training, is given the task of killing a captive Monstrous Nightmare dragon.
        15. Taking a raven named Diaval as a servant, a now hate-filled Maleficent names herself ruler of the Moors.

         

           PAST PARTICIPLE
        CHANGE THE CLAUSES INTO THE PAST PARTICIPLES!

      1. The Royal wedding which is being broadcasted becomes the world attention.
      2. Thor and Foster reunite in London with Lewis and Foster’s mentor Dr. Erik Selvig—who was briefly institutionalized due to the mental trauma he suffered during Loki’s attack on Earth.
      3. While Baruto was being trained by Sasuke, he showed his improvement in creating rasengan.
      4. While Harry and his friends were hurrying to the passageway full in the black candles, they found a strange book.
      5. Because she was treated like a servant, she went away from the house.
      6. After she had been ignored by Elsa for some years, Anna felt so lonely.
      7. Since Rapunzel was startled by the appearance of a man, she hit him with a pan.
      8. Since Master Shifu was kidnapped, he pretended to be dead and finally could release himself.
      9. Spot which is wanted by the wild birds is running to the river which is flooded with a lot of mud.
      10. The laboratory which is equipped by the most sophisticated technology is led by T’Chaka’s sister, Shuri.
      11. Elizabeth Turner’s blood which is needed to lift the pirates’ curse becomes the most precious thing for the pirates.
      12. Belle and the Beast who is now transformed back into a handsome prince are dancing happily.
      13. The stunt of saving Dennis which was filmed by the campers and uploaded to the Internet eventually reached Mavis and Johnny.
      14. Because he was injured in the fight, Hiccup lost his lower left leg and required a prosthesis.
      15. After she was kissed by Maleficent, Aurora helped restore Maleficent’s wings to her.

CHANGE THE UNDERLINED PHRASES INTO CLAUSES!

        1. The ballroom used for the dancing party is decorated as a real palace ballroom.
        2. Malekith, awakened by the Aether’s release, turns Algrim into a Kursed and attacks Asgard.
        3. The chosen shinobi has to accomplish his hard mission.
        4. The ghost hidden by Harry Potter was about to appear when Hermione pushed its head.
        5. The attic used to keep old things became Cinderella’s bedroom.
        6. Having been crowned, Elsa exiled herself.
        7. Being tied on a chair with Rapunzel’s hair, the man was forced to promise her to bring her out of the castle.
        8. The saved baby Panda during the battle was treated by a crane to be his father.
        9. Annoyed by the small creature, Arlo left his house to catch it.
        10. The advanced laboratory built in Wakanda has devices made of vibranium.
        11. A young Will Turner rescued from a shipwreck by Elizabeth finally fell in love with her.
        12. Being attacked and nearly killed by a pack of rabid wolves, Maurice, Belle’s father winded up at the gate of a dark castle.
        13. Attacked by Bela, who mistakes Dennis for a human, Dennis was raged.
        14. Stoick, cheered by Hiccup’s unexpected success in dragon training, is proud of his lame and awkward son.
        15. Tortured, Aurora pleads for mercy upon Phillip and her people.
           

      Activity Three

      You need a practice of what you’ve learnt by listening, writing and speaking. So here are the instructions:

      Finish doing all exercises? Discuss your answers with your teacher. When you quite understand them, go to the next activity.

      COMPOSE A SHORT STORY! THEN, RECORD YOUR TELLING IT. IT IS BETTER IN VIDEO. PRESENT IT TO THE CLASS!

      ALL ACTIVITIES HAVE BEEN COMPLETED! BEFORE ASKING FOR THE EVALUATION, GO ON TO SUMMARIZE AND CHEK YOUR UNDERTANDING THROUGH THE TABLE BELOW!

      THE NEXT IS WATCH  THE CHOSEN MOVIE TOGETHER WITH THE CLASS, WHILE ANSWERING SOME QUESTIONS RELATING TO THE MOVIE!.

       SUMMARY :

      1. The function of short story is ___________________________________________
      2. The structure test of short story is ___________________________________________
      3. The function of the Adjective Clause is ___________________________________________
      4. The function of the Noun Clause is ___________________________________________
      5. The function of the Adverbial Clause is ___________________________________________
      6. The function of Present Participle is ___________________________________________
      7. The function of Past Participle is ___________________________________________
      8. The structure test of Adjective Clause is ___________________________________________
      9. The structure test of Noun Clause is ___________________________________________
      10. The structure test of the Adverbial Clause is ___________________________________________
      11. The structure test of Present Participle is ___________________________________________
      12. The structure test of Past Participle is ___________________________________________

       

      CHECK WITH YOUR TEACHER WHETHER YOUR ANSWERS ARE CORRECT OR NOT. THEN FILL IN THE TABLE BELOW!

       SELF-REFLECTION ON THE MASTERY OF MATERIALS

      No QUESTIONS Yes No
      1. Can you differentiate short story from other forms of text?
      2. Do you understand the text structure of short story?
      3. Can you apply clauses and participles in sentences?
      4. Can you compose a short story?
      5. Can you comprehend a short story through listening?

Chapter 5: ANNOUNCEMENT

CHAPTER 5 :  ANNOUNCEMENT AND MODIFIER

BE : 3.3/4.3/1/4.4

BASIC COMPETENCE

3.5 membedakan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan beberapa teks khusus dalam bentuk pemberitahuan (announcement), dengan member dan meminta informasi terkait kegiatan sekolah, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya

4.5 teks pemberitahuan (announcement)

4.5.1 menangkap makna secara kontekstual terkait fungsi sosial, struktu rteks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks khusus dalam bentuk pemberitahuan (announcement)

4.5.2 menyusun teks khusus dalam bentuk pemberitahuan (announcement), lisan dan tulis, pendek dan sederhana, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsu rkebahasaan, secara benar dan sesuai konteks

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will learn about Descriptive text and how to use the adjective clause to describe things or people.  Practicing is needed to enhance your understanding on the social function, the structure of the descriptive text and  grammatical structure of adjective clause.

  1. Learning process

GENERAL INSTRUCTION : You have to do the activities step by step to understand the learning material. At the end, there will be an evaluation to test your level of understanding on the material. When your level is above the passing score, you may continue to the next material.

Before you ask for the evaluation, please ensure yourself that you have already mastered the whole material in this chapter.

 BEFORE LEARNING

It is sure that each school has announcements for all the activities it holds. Can you tell what is commonly announced?  Write your answer!

 WHILST  LEARNING

ACTIVITY ONE

Read the announcement below!

Bullying and behaving impolitely has become the teachers’ and parents’ great concern since three years ago.  Regarding to this, school has a project for the students to campaign no-bullying at school and respecting others through a ten-minute movie. The best movie will be part of the school profile and become the school representative for the national movie festivals.

THEME :  NO-BULLYING AT SCHOOL AND RESPECTING OTHERS

PARTICIPANTS : Students, teachers, school staff, and workers.

CRITERIA :

  1. The movie has to be collaboratively made by all of the components (students, teachers, school staff, and workers)
  2. The movie has to use the school setting.
  3. It is allowed to use bilingual languages (Indonesian and Javanese)

Registration : November 5, 2018 – December 5, 2018

Time of the festival : January 5, 2018.

  1. The opening ceremony :       17:00
  2. The movie festival :       17:15
  3. The announcement :       21:00

Venue : The school auditorium.

NOTE : The movie has to be submitted two days before the festival.

 

 ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW!

  1. What is the announcement about?
  2. Whom is the announcement for?
  3. What is the purpose of the project?
  4. How will the appreciation be given for the best movie?
  5. Why is such theme chosen?
  6. According to you, why are all of the components included?
  7. How long are the participants given to decide whether joining or not?
  8. If there are eleven movies, can the announcement be on time?
  9. When will be the latest day for submitting the movie?
  10. What is the missing information?

ACTIVITY TWO

TO STRENGTHEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING, YOU HAD BETTER COMPOSE AN ANNOUNCEMENT TEXT YOURSELF!

HERE ARE SOME TOPICS YOU CAN CHOOSE!

  1. the importance of keeping the class clean
  2. the social activities the school is going to hold
  3. some new school regulations
  4. parents’ annual meeting
  5. art exhibition at school

TO ADD YOUR KNOWLEDGE ON GRAMMAR, HERE ARE SOME EXERCISES TO STRENGTHEN YOUR UNDERSTANDING ON HOW IT IS APPLIED IN SENTENCES.

LEARN SOME TYPES OF MODIFIERS AT THE GRAMMAR BOOK BEFORE DOING THE EXERCISES BELOW!

ACTIVITY THREE

ARTICLES

Fill in the blank with a, an, the, or blank (-)!

  1. … planet is one of … celestial bodies.
  2. … planet which has … most oxygen is … Earth.
  3. We have to write … article for … writing task.
  4. There is … crying child over there.
  5. … evacuation of … victims due to … earthquake last night is still difficult to do.
  6. What … distant place! We spent three hours to reach … place.
  7. Have you had … lunch already? If not, I offer you … delicious lunch which is made by my Mom.
  8. Are … teachers at … library for … meeting?
  9. … impatience often makes people ignore … clear mind.
  10. May we go … home earlier? We have finished … task.
  11. Communication technology should help us get … better life.
  12. She was sitting on … bed while reading … letter.
  13. Have you sent … invitation to … Hendra? They are … most important family for me.
  14. There is no one here. They may be having … tea time.
  15. I saw … man entering my neighbor’s house. I am still curious about … man.
  16. Write your answer on … paper, and don’t forget to write your name on … paper.
  17. I wonder why … rich do little to help … poor.
  18. It is rare now to find … bottle which is made of … glass.
  19. … students were hurrying … home when … rain fell hard.
  20. Many people still believe that money can buy … happiness.

DEMONSTRATIVES

Fill in the blank with this, these, that, or those!

  1. Come here, and look at … flowers! They are the rarest species.
  2. … picture describes the difficult time during the war.
  3. Let’s go there! … teenagers are going to fight.
  4. Everyone wonders why … monument was built here.
  5. Are you familiar with … lady who is sitting near the piano?
  6. I’m doubtful that … problem will influence his work.
  7. …. crocodiles, in the right cage, look fierce.
  8. We prefer … room for the conference. It’s large and has two air conditioners.
  9. There are two luxurious cars in the parking lot. … are owned by the owner of … company.
  10. Someone gave … message to me this morning, but I don’t understand the content.
  11. Shall we try … rides over there? They will pump our adrenaline.
  12. … shoes look more sporty than … at the corner.
  13. We had better ask … man about the right way. We are getting lost.
  14. Everybody will laugh at you if you wear … costume.
  15. I have never seen … kinds of fish. I will take a picture of them.

DISTRIBUTIVE

Fill in the blank with cardinal number, ordinal number,  every or each!

  1. … of these pages has a green mark at the top.
  2. We are proud of you because you are able to reach the … rank. You deserve to be the winner.
  3. I got … books from my old friend. Both are in English.
  4. There are only … students in this class, so if … student speaks for two minutes, we will spend only about 60 minutes.
  5. My room number is 409. It means that it is at the … floor as the first number shows the level of the floor.
  6. Believe it or not! … worker in this company has ever had the mystical experience.
  7. Please, listen to me! There is a piece of paper underneath … chair.
  8. You can find a key word in … sentence to help you understand the meaning.
  9. Teachers must be careful with … word they utter for it can influence the students’ life.
  10. Chapter four was as hard as the … chapter. We have been learning it for two days, but we cannot get what it is.
  11. We are satisfied to the students’ work. … did their best and was responsible to their duty.
  12. The animals … have their own way to defense because they are created uniquely.
  13. The … graders should think about the subject they will choose for their studies in the university.
  14. There are only … cards, so the last card must be number 20.
  15. One meter is equal to … centimeters.

OTHER AND ANOTHER

Fill in the blank with another, others, the other, the others, one another or each other!

  1. There are four kinds of pollution. Water and land pollution are caused by people’s waste, and … two are caused by smoke and noise.
  2. I think I have copied the two pages. This is the first page. Where is …?
  3. A lot of teenagers are watching the music concert. Some are standing and dancing near the stage while … are just sitting and waving hands.
  4. The two students often look at … shyly. It seems that they are falling in love.
  5. I got … message saying that the plan is postponed. How can it be? He just texted me yesterday that we would carry it out this week.
  6. The participants don’t seem to be interested in this workshop. Only a few pay attention seriously, while … are busy with their mobile phone.
  7. The students are practicing a script of a play. They are talking to and shouting at ….
  8. I don’t like the food in this menu. I will ask whether I can have … one.
  9. These flowers are blooming more enchantingly than … ones over there.
  10. From the three arguments you have written, this doesn’t relate to your thesis. Can I see …?
  11. Alright, students! Now, you have to interview … ! Get some information from at least 5 persons.
  12. I feel comfortable with my new seatmate. We always help ….
  13. This route is too far. How about trying …? Let’s check the Google map.
  14. Are there four sequels for “The Lord of The Rings”? I have watched three of them. I don’t know about … one.
  15. There are a lot of victims on the last earthquake. Many of them were found dead, and … are still missing.

SOME OTHER MODIFIERS

Fill in the blank with, some, any, many, much, few, little, no or none!

  1. Please, give us … more time because we still have … questions to ask you.
  2. Will you transfer the money? I need … to pay the tickets.
  3. How … flour was needed for this big cake?
  4. We don’t care about how … you spent for these books as far as they are useful for you.
  5. Sorry to tell you all that I don’t have … information for the number of the dead people.
  6. He cannot avoid buying … novel about crime even though he has … money.
  7. I doubt that we will meet … deer along this route.
  8. Would you like … more wine?
  9. … of us know about how to finish this game because it’s difficult to understand the instructions.
  10. There are … food sellers here because it is far from a market.
  11. We are able to collect … shells which we need to cover the wall with.
  12. We took a bath once a day because there was only … water for it.
  13. When I arrived at a remote village, … of the inhabitants understood my language. After I had learnt their language for one night, I could speak to a … of them.
  14. Please, just put a … soy sauce for its smell is so strong.
  15. You don’t need to worry about the ingredients because we have had … things available for this contest.

CLOSING

NOW, LET’S SUMMARIZE WHAT WE HAVE LEARNT BY ANSWERING THESE QUESTIONS:

  1. What is the purpose of the announcement text?

____________________________________________

  1. What is the function of modifiers?

____________________________________________

  1. Mention some modifiers and give example of each!

____________________________________________

 

SHOW YOUR ANSWER TO THE TEACHER, THEN FILL IN THE TABLE BELOW TO KNOW IF YOU HAVE GOOD UNDERSTANDING ON THE LEARNT MATERIAL!

SELF-REFLECTION ON THE MASTERY OF MATERIALS

No Questions Yes No
1. Can you differentiate the announcement text from the other form of texts?
2. Can you comprehend an announcement text?
3. Can you compose an announcement text?
4. Do you understand the function of each modifier?
5. Can you apply the modifiers in sentences?

 

ENGLISH SUBJECT X 

 

 

QUESTION TAG

QUESTION TAG

GENERAL FORM :

 SENTENCE,  AUXILIARY + PRONOUN AS SUBJECT ?

USE :   1. to ask for confirmation of something that we are not sure about 2.to ask for agreement

Examples :

–    The students aren’t having a test, are they?

–    Mr. Andi has been familiar with the situation here,  hasn’t he?

–    This fertilizer isn’t dangerous, is it?

–    The forests can reduce the methane, can’t they?

–    You used to visit this place, didn’t you?

–    The woman who will be the jury in this festival comes from Jakarta,   doesn’t she?

–    After   your  sister  graduates from the university, she  will work here, won’t she?

There are few exceptions :

–    I am your best friend, aren’t I?

–    There is something to eat now, isn’t there?

–    Nothing is useful, is it?

–    Something has just happened here, hasn’t it?

–    No one realizes what they have done, do they?

–    Everyone in this class hasn’t been tested, have they?

–    You  rarely  / scarcely  / seldom pay him a visit, do you?

–    His parents never give him money, do they?

–    (invitation)   Do come in and enjoy yourselves, won’t you?

–    (telling people to do something)  Show your last creation, would / will you?

–    ( negative imperative )   Don’t tell a lie, will you?

–    (suggestion)  Let’s go for a walk, shall we?

–    ellipsis  : (It is) a nice place, isn’t it?

(She is) your new girl friend, isn’t she?

 

The meaning of question – tags will change according to  the intonation.

  • If  it  is said with a falling intonation,  it  makes  the sentence sound more like a statement or agreement.

e.g.      –  She is really a beautiful girl, isn’t she?

–   The meeting will begin next Monday, won’t it?

–   Her explanation isn’t correct, is it?

  • The  sentence is more  like a real question or  asking  for confirmation with the rising intonation.

e.g.  –    You have seen Andi somewhere, haven’t you ?

–    The  designers will have finished it before the  end of this month, won’t they ?

 

GRAMMAR

DISCUSSION TEXTS

READING

DISCUSSION

Communicative Purpose:

to present information and opinions about issues in more than one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’)

 Generic Structure:

  1. Issue
  2. Arguments for and against
  3. Conclusion

Text One

Due to the facts of how teenagers drive a car or ride a motorcyle, it is suggested that all citizens under the age of 21 should be required to pass a driving or riding education course before receiving a license to drive or to ride.

People who agree to this suggestion consider that teenager’s part of the brain which controls emotion and behaviour hasn’t developed well. This influences how they drive or ride. They are not able to decide fast the right thing to do when a problem appears at a sudden on the road. Besides, their labile emotion still leads their ego to satisfy themselves by ignoring others’ safety. It will look cool for them to be the fastest on the road though it can endanger others. Therefore, by having a course, they will be trained to control the emotion and behaviour and learn to obey the traffic rules for their and others’ safety. Having a certificate after the course, they are assumed to have more understanding on how to drive or to ride.

However, other argument that opposes the issue says that having a course is a waste of time. This statement is due to the weak control from the government on any policy. This weakness opens the chance to certain officers to get more money by persuading people to get the certificate instantly. It is not a secret anymore that the difficulty to pass the test leads the people to bribe the officer in charge to get the certificate without an appropriate procedure. By paying more money, people don’t have to spend a lot of time to get the license.

In conclusion, this regulation is good for people’s safety on the road, but the government has to control strictly on the enforcement of the regulation.

(written by Hedwig)

Read the text well, then write the issue and the for and against arguments  you can get from the text! You may add with your own argument.

Text Two

Many students complain about how difficult Math is. They feel uncomfortable during the lesson. Is that because of the incapable teacher, the wrong method of teaching, or the material that is hard? No matter what it is, there is always a controversion whether learning Math is a must or not.

People who support that Math must be taught tell that it is one of the important subjects because it teaches more on how to think logically and systematically than on merely how to calculate numbers. When students get used to thinking logically and systematically, they will feel it easy to learn all the subjects. Principally, learning everything needs the logical thinking to get the concept – in reading a text, for example.  The information in a text can be got from not only the explicit but also the implicit message. The implicit message is found only by connecting one case to another case. Surely, this requires logic.  In the real life, logical thinking enables us to analyze the situation in order that we can decide what to do appropriately.

However, some people disagree that Math is the required lesson. It causes the students stressed because they have to understand abstract things, count complex numbers, or memorize formulae.  Those are useless because they won’t be used in their job.  It will be more annoying when students are required to pass the minimum score which is high enough to be promoted to the higher level.  Due to this requirement, parents whose children aren’t clever are afraid that their children will fail academically; they won’t graduate.  Is it so frightening that children and parents may get stressed? As far as Match teachers don’t connect Math concepts to the real life, students will never understand the importance of Math for them, and it will become the haunting lesson for the whole life. Imagine, they will learn it for 13 years.

From the two sides, we can conclude that teaching Math is not only about calculating numbers but more about training the students to think logically and systematically. If Math teachers understand this, they won’t force their students to memorize formulae or calculate large numbers. They will  guide them to apply Math in the real life, so no student will say that Math sucks.

(by Hedwig Maria)

Write the main idea of each paragraph.

  1. From those main ideas, tell the difference between the exposition and the discussion texts.
  2. Write your command on each reason or argument.
  3. Write other possible reasons for each text.

VOCABULARY

PUT THE UNDERLINED WORDS ON THE TWO TEXTS INTO THE PROPER PART OF SPEECH IN THE TABLE BELOW! (One has been done for you)

No VERB ADJECTIVE NOUN ADVERB
1 logical logic logically
2
3

WHEN ALL THE WORDS ARE ON THE RIGHT COLUMN, WRITE THE OTHER PARTS OF SPEECH!  (You may consult your dictionary)

Text Three

Read  the instructions while completing it with the sentences below!

CAMERA BASIC INSTRUCTION MANUAL

  1. Insert the battery.
  2. Insert the card. With the card’s label facing toward the back of the camera, insert it into the card slot.
  3. Attach the lens. Align the lens’ white or red mount index with the camera’s mount index of the same color.
  4. Set the lens’ focus mode switch to <AF>
  5. Set the power switch to <ON>. When the LCD monitor displays the date/time/zone setting screens,
  6. Set the Mode Dial to <A+>. All the necessary camera settings will be set automatically.
  7. Focus on the subject.
  8. Take the picture. Press the shutter button completely to take the picture.
  9. Review the picture

Insert each sentence into the text!

  • Display the menu screen. Press the <MENU> button to display the menu screen.
  • Press the shutter button halfway, and the camera will focus on the subject.
  • To display the image again, press the right arrow button.
  • If necessary, the built-in flash will be raised.
  • Set the time zone. (London) is set by default. Press the right or left arrow keys to select the time zone box.
  • Look through the viewfinder and aim the viewfinder center over the subject.
  • Under the tab, select (Date/Time/Zone). Press the right or left arrow keys to select the tab and Press the up and down button keys to select (Date/Time/Zone), then press <set>
  • The captured image will be displayed for approx. 2 seconds on the LCD monitor.

(source: Canon Manual)

VOCABULARY

Fill in the blank with another part of speech of the underlined word from the text!

  1. Lens are the most … in a camera. The variety of the lens depends on lens focal length.
  2. Never forget to … off the power button after using the camera.
  3. The … of the pictures taken by this camera is interesting enough to attract many visitors.
  4. The … light can help the camera to create a clear picture.
  5. You can use the … mode if it’s difficult to adjust the focus.
  6. You must keep this … in orrder that the dust may not destroy the lens.
  7. The … of a shot which can tell a lot about facts must be cosidered before making pictures.
  8. The screen … is needed to show how far your work is.
  9. Do you need the … of what they have done this week?
  10. Everyone should understand the … of taking pictures so that those pictures can tell something.

READING PRACTICES

Chapter 4 : Correlative Conjunctions

CHAPTER 4: CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

BSE : 3.4/4.4/1/4.4

  1. Identity

BASIC COMPETENCE

3.4 menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsure kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait hubungan setara antara dua benda/tindakan, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsure kebahasaan bothand; not only but also; either or; neither nor)

 4.4 menyusun teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan member dan meminta informasi yang mengandung hubungan setara antara dua benda/tindakan, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will learn about some conjunctions. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure to make meaningful sentences.  Practicing by writing and speaking is needed to enhance your understanding on the social function and the structure of conjunctions.

GENERAL INSTRUCTION : You have to do the activities step by step to understand the learning material. At the end, there will be an evaluation to test your level of understanding on the material. When your level is above the passing score, you may continue to the next material.

Before you ask for the evaluation, please ensure yourself that you have already mastered the whole material in this chapter.

 Before learning :

Based on the situation given, fill in the blanks with the conjunctions provided in the box!

Plastic and fossil fuel now become the big threat for creatures’ lives.  Many marine animals die because of eating the plastic waste which is thrown to the sea or ocean. Plants cannot grow healthily due to the land and air pollution. The increasing pollution in the air, in the water, and on the land causes humans get many kinds of diseases. The earth is badly damaged.

Not only…but also,   both…and,    either…or,    and neither.

  1. __________ plastic waste ____________threatens the creatures’ lives.
  2. Plants are in danger because of __________ land __________air pollution.
  3. The life span of __________ animals __________plants will be shorter than it should be.
  4. Humans cannot live healthily and __________can plants and animals.

To understand more about how to use the conjunctions, do the following activities!  See more conjunctions on the grammar book!

Whilst learning :

ACTIVITY ONE

Here are three paragraphs containing some conjunctions you are about to learn. Write the sentences with the underlined conjunctions. Then analyze the grammatical structure of each sentence by writing the pattern.

 

  1. Both the land pollution and the water pollution influence the lives of not only human but also animals. They cannot grow healthily. Those who cannot adapt the pollution will soon be extinct. However, human, the natural destroyer, haven’t done anything yet to revitalize the damaged nature. They keep on either exploiting the natural resources overwhelmingly or throwing inorganic waste on the land and river or sea. Neither of the governments has the strict policy to save the Earth.

2. The hotels near the beach get the negative impacts of the abundant plastic waste on the beach and so do the restaurants The visitors neither pay attention on the cleanliness nor take care of the clean environment. Is that because of their typical mindset saying that there is always someone else who is paid to clean it? If it is so, either notice, announcement or warning to keep the environment clean will be useless. Therefore, families must educate their children to love their environment and schools do too.

3. Young people should be not only encouraged but also forced to reduce the use of plastic. They must understand that it will gradually both endanger the lives and cause the extinction of the creatures. Unfortunately, the grown-ups doesn’t either give the examples of caring the nature or at least have the effort to recycle or reuse. Poor the Earth! Land won’t be the comfortable place for the creature anymore, and neither will the sea or water.

 

ACTIVITY TWO

To understand how to apply the conjunctions, do the exercise below! Join the two sentences into the correct and meaningful one by using one or two conjunctions!

  1. Plastic is used in food industries. Plastic is used in beverage industries.
  2. The people’s knowledge on the danger of plastic is still low. The awareness on the danger of plastic is still low.
  3. Water pollution cannot be tolerated anymore. Land pollution cannot be tolerated anymore.
  4. The natural resources must be taken care of simultaneously. The natural resources must be taken care of in an integrative system.
  5. According to people, plastic is durable. According to people, plastic is efficient.
  6. Consumers don’t care about how to recycle the plastic waste. Producers don’t care about how to recycle the plastic waste.
  7. There have been plenty of pictures about reusing the plastic waste. There have been plenty of videos about reusing the plastic waste.
  8. Some tutorial videos on recycling plastic waste may inspire people to so the same. Some tutorial videos on recycling plastic waste may motivate people to be more creative.
  9. Being creative in processing the plastic waste can open a new business. Being creative in processing the plastic waste can increase the family income.
  10. The marine lives are badly impacted due to the tremendous plastic waste in the ocean. The people’s oceanic food is badly impacted due to the tremendous plastic waste in the ocean.
  11. The land is polluted by the bottled water and plastic-wrapped snacks. The water – rivers and ocean – is polluted by the bottled water and plastic-wrapped snacks.
  12. Governments are forced to manage their plastic waste by recycling it. Governments are forced to manage their plastic waste by reusing it.
  13. For good news, there have been many creative people using plastic for decoration. Some governments establish a department to manage the plastic waste.
  14. In fact, people know the danger of the plastic waste. People realize that it is going to be a deadly catastrophic disaster.
  15. Ecologists work hard to find the ways to clean the environment from the plastic waste. The environmentalists work hard to find the ways to clean the environment from the plastic waste.

 

ACTIVITY THREE

Correct the sentences below!

  1. Indonesia has not only many beautiful beaches but wonderful marine lives.
  2. A lot of schools still ignore their plastic waste and so are the governmental offices.
  3. The amount of plastic which is drifting on the seas is either alarming nor worrying.
  4. Either the ecologists or the environmentalist have a great concern on the fact that on some beaches on the Big Island of Hawaii, as much as 15 percent of the sand is actually grains of microplastic.
  5. Both wind turbines and solar panels is ever-more common, not only in the west and in fast-growing China.
  6. Industries drain the fuel mines and neither do the steam engines.
  7. Either coal nor oil helps humans get improving technologies.
  8. Many governments are now trying to subsidize not only the clean-power sources and efficient cars and buildings.
  9. Neither renewables nor nuclear power sources still cannot displace the fossil fuel.
  10. The weather is greatly affected by the over-consumption of fossil fuel and the air pollution is either.
  11. The rise of temperature in the Earth either has resulted in melting of polar ice caps or in flooding of low lying area.
  12. Oil can be highly dangerous but also cause a massive damage.
  13. The result of fuel combustion can cause serious health complications and the emission of the greenhouse gasses too.
  14. Neither the oil leaks from the oil tanker or the oil spill on the ocean endanger the oceanic biota.
  15. Either the wind turbines or solar panels the alternative renewable sources of energy.

 

ACTIVITY FOUR

Apply those conjunctions in a dialogue with your friends!

 

Closing:

NOW, SUMMARIZE WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT BY COMPLETING THE SENTENCES BELOW! TRY NOT SEEING THE GRAMMAR BOOK.

  1. How do we use “both …and”, “not only …but also”, “either … or” and “neither … nor”?
  2. How do we use “and …too” and “and …either”?
  3. How do we use “and so…” and “and neither …”
  4. Give example of each conjunction!

SHOW YOUR ANSWERS TO THE TEACHER AND LET HER / HIM CHECK IT.

NOW, FILL IN THE TABLE BELOW TO REFLECT YOURSELF ON UNDERSTANDING THE MATERIAL!

SELF-REFLECTION ON THE MASTERY OF MATERIALS

No questions Yes No
1. Can you differentiate the function of each conjunction?
2. Can you apply those conjunctions in sentences?

 

ENGLISH LITERATURE X