Chapter 2: Adj.Clause and Prepositional Phrase

BSE : 3.2/4.2/5/1.1

Adjective Clause, Prepositional Phrase

and Explanation text

Basic Competence

3.2 menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait benda dengan pewatas berupa sifat, jenis, dan fakta keadaan/kejadian, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan prepositional phrase, adjective clause: finite dan nonfinite)

4.2 menyusun teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait benda dengan pewatas berupa sifat, jenis, dan fakta keadaan/kejadian, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will learn about Adjective Clause, Prepositional Phrase and review on Explanation Text. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure used to make meaningful sentences.  Practicing applying the material is needed to enhance your understanding on their social function and the structure.


Fill in the blank with the correct relative conjunction (who, whom, which, whose)!

The parties … oppose to the government are led by the politicians … career in politics has been long enough. They know very well about the effect of what they state. Unfortunately, their public statement … words are harsh enough often leads the social movement … endangers the nation integrity. People … know nothing about politics are directed to opose the government through hoaxes. Factually, the hoax makers … the police have caught or are being chased were paid to do so.

Which grammatical structure is used in the sentences above?


You have learnt about Adjective Clause before. To refresh it, open this link:

Now, do the following activities which will become the enrichment of the function of Adjective Clause.

Activity One

Please, read the article below while marking any sentence containing Adjective Clause.

Taking the Future of Manufacturing Into High Schools

By Nick Leiber

      • June 7, 2019

ANNA, Ohio — In early May, in a classroom at Anna High School, five seniors focused on controlling a canary yellow robotic arm. They took turns tapping code into a pendant connected to the arm.

Their assignment was to make the arm grab and move a bunch of AA batteries, one by one, from one box to another. Along the way, the arm was supposed to circle each battery inside an empty Folgers coffee canister, then return it to its original position without knocking any over.

Something in their code was off, though, and a few of the batteries wobbled and fell. The students, who were learning about industrial robots and other technologies used in advanced manufacturing, took the hiccup in stride, examining lines of code for errors and cracking jokes. Their teacher, K. C. Needles, offered encouragement, but didn’t tell them how to fix their mistake.

One of the students, Jarred Seigle, liked how their task was similar to what he’d seen robots do on assembly lines in Honda’s engine plant a few miles outside the center of the village. “This is something we could all be doing in a few years if we’re working in a factory,” said Jarred, 18, who is planning to major in mechanical engineering at the University of Toledo. “We might be programming robots.”

The school, in a tightknit farming village about 50 miles north of Dayton, is among secondary schools around the world that offer robotics classes and related disciplines to prepare students for industries being transformed by automation.

The schools are adapting educational materials developed by manufacturers and building special labs. The idea is to give the students a foundation in how industrial technology works and, in some cases, expose them to manufacturing careers.

Robots could eliminate 75 million jobs globally by 2022 and create 133 million others, according to a World Economic Forum report released last year. Global manufacturers could also face a potential shortage of 7.9 million workers by 2030, warns a study released last year by the consulting firm Korn Ferry.

Because of negative perceptions about factory work, making it appealing is a global challenge, said Rob Luce, vice president of the SME Education Foundation, the philanthropic training arm of the manufacturing trade group SME. The foundation helped start the Anna program and nearly 50 others like it in American high schools.

“The nation that figures it out first is going to be in the front position to capitalize,” Mr. Luce added.

Manufacturers’ need for people who can operate, troubleshoot, maintain and install robotics and automation technology “is going to grow in the future,” said Scot McLemore, manager of talent acquisition at Honda North America. Automation equipment is increasingly being adopted by sectors outside of auto manufacturing, which has used robots for decades.

Worldwide industrial robot sales increased to 381,000 in 2017 from 221,000 units in 2014, according to the International Federation of Robotics in Frankfurt. The trade group estimated that sales could reach 484,000 by year-end and 553,000 next year.

The factory perception problem is thorny, Mr. McLemore said. Unless parents have a personal connection to someone working in manufacturing, “they either have no idea what happens or they have a misperception that it’s dark, dirty and dangerous, which is definitely not the case,” he said.



Activity Two

Separate those sentences you have found in Activity One into the main clause and its sub-clause (Adjective Clause).

Activity Three

Open this link:

Understand what she is talking about. Choose one of the main question categories and make a choice on the listed common topics. Write the leading question that you want to explain. Then, try writing your opinion about it. Use some Adjective Clauses in your writing.

Activity Four

To know the difference between Adjective Clause and Prepositional phrase, learn the following examples. The clauses underlined are the Adjective Clause, while the italic phrases are prepositional phrase.

      1. The hoaxes which are spread out have a great negative impact on social life.
      2. The politicians in this country are asked to avoid giving statements that cause social disintegration.
      3. The president with his family is enjoying their leisure time by doing some sports.
      4. Few members who didn’t attend the meeting don’t accept the decision without any reason.
      5. Any president’s guest who visits The President’s palace is always amazed at the beautiful garden around it.

Analyze the grammatical structure and the functional purpose of Adjective Clause and Prepositional Phrase!

Activity Five

Now, it’s time to practice!

Develop the noun by adding (a) Adjective Clause and (b) Prepositional phrase. You may choose the noun you want to develop, either the subject or the object, even you may have both.

Example : The first candidate polled over 512 votes.

      • The first candidate who is the incumbent polled over 512 votes.
      • The first candidate from the biggest party polled over 512 votes.
      1. The political magazine is aimed to educate people.
      2. The committee are selecting the candidates.
      3. Everyone appreciates the leader’s policy.
      4. The men have been investigating the cheat and manipulation during the election.
      5. The symbol may not be used to represent the group.
      6. The judges worked for twenty hours to give the fair decision.
      7. Some Mayors were caught for bribery.
      8. Newspaper columnists commented on the presidential election.
      9. The presidential election has been carried out peacefully.
      10. Some legislative candidates are getting crazy.

Correct the sentences below! You may find more than one mistakes in each sentence.

      1. The judges asked the witness whom looked nervous to elaborate his explanation of the time and the place.
      2. What the minister did on the ship who stole fishes under our sea is protested.
      3. The government requests teachers on the state schools to teach their students the importance of appreciating everyone whom religion is different from them.
      4. The political will whose the political leaders state to the public is sometimes far from their factual behavior.
      5. Some young leaders in high intelligence must be motivated to keep their integrity who can support their career.
      6. The information which impact can damage the people’s belief at what is true has to be stopped before the worst thing happens.
      7. A leader with great ambition will do more for the people’s welfare because he will never think of himself.
      8. Some people whom become the target of the murder are the professionals of law and Information Technology.
      9. Radicalism who people hate has influenced the university students which have little knowledge.
      10. Accepting differences between the people should be taught to the children which live or study in homogeneous society.

Activity Six

The following activity is to review the Explanation Text. To do the exercises, open this link:


You had better review the whole material before getting an evaluation. So, Answer the questions below!

    1. Write the grammatical structure of Adjective Clause.
    2. Write the grammatical structure of Prepositional phrase.
    3. What is the functional purpose of Adjective Clause?
    4. What is the functional purpose of Prepositional phrase?
    5. What is the generic structure and the functional purpose of Explanation text?


Chapter 1: Clause of Result

BSE : 3.1/4.1/5/1.1

Clause of result and Analytical Exposition Texts

Basic Competence

3.1 menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait hubungan sebab akibat, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan such that; so that)

 4.1 menyusun teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait hubungan sebab akibat, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks   

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will learn about CLAUSE OF RESULT and review on ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION TEXT. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure used to make meaningful sentences.  Practicing applying the material is needed to enhance your understanding on the social function and the structure of the clause.



First paragraph.

Due to the climate change, it has been so hot recently that people feel tired easily after doing some physical activities. They always grumble on such hot days and use air conditioners to get themselves cool. However, they are too selfish. They don’t realize that people, as human, are the atmosphere destroyers. They release such a huge amount of dangerous gas to the air every day that it damages the ozone layer. Only do a few countries begin to reduce their gas emission, while the others deny polluting the air.

Second paragraph.

The high demand of social life causes young people work so hard that they ignore the importance of having enough sleep. The fatal effect of lacking of sleep is the brain damage. Most of them still haven’t been aware of this, so they never consider it a big problem.




Analyze again the three underlined sentences above. Decide which shows the emphasis and which is the effect.

Let the teacher check your answers.


You have learnt about Clause of Result before. To review it, open this link:

Find the Adverbial Clauses, then you can do the exercises below for practicing!

2.1   Here are some causes with no emphasis. Find out some appropriate effects or result for each cause!

Example: His wife doesn’t have enough time for her family.

His wife doesn’t have enough time for her family, so he is trying to find a day for them to talk about it to keep their family.

      1. Many young people are easily influenced by anything shown in social media.
      2. The students’ competence in comprehending a text is still low.
      3. Few parents are aware of the danger of their children’s addiction on gadgets.
      4. Only do few schools give attention more on students’ character than on academic excellence.
      5. Appreciating the elders are becoming lower nowadays.
      6. People who are busy with their gadget ignores what’s happening around them.
      7. Internet provides the easy life.
      8. Online business helps young people to begin their own business.
      9. People whose hobbies are reading have more knowledge.
      10. Our people still consider high IQ is more important than EQ.
      11. Parents commonly force their children to follow their ambition.
      12. What are needed the most to get success in the workfield is honesty and discipline.
      13. Education system in our country hasn’t focused on character building.
      14. Teacher is a profession which greatly influences the development of a country.
      15. Good attitude is one of the soft skills a job seeker needs to have.


2.2.  Here are some emphases! Find out some appropriate effects for each emphasis!

Example: There are only a few garbage cans provided in public places.

There are such a few garbage cans provided in public places that people finally prefer to throw their garbage everywhere.

      1. The number of vehicles has been increasing quite fast.
      2. The level of dangerous gasses is too high in big cities.
      3. A lot of countries ask their people to have solar cell roofs.
      4. Long time ago, people cared a lot to their environment.
      5. Many countries are hoped to have closed their plastic factories.
      6. It’s difficult enough to change people’s habit of using plastic bags.
      7. There are too many irresponsible tourists.
      8. The amount of inorganic waste is too much to be handled.
      9. People are too lazy to separate the organic and the inorganic waste when disposing them.
      10. Some rivers are full of garbage.
      11. There are still too many ignorant people to the environmental damage due to the use of plastic.
      12. It seems too difficult for people to change their habits of throwing the rubbish into the rivers.
      13. The condition of air pollution is extremely alarming.
      14. We have abundant garbage which is not controlled well.
      15. People use much paper quite carelessly.

2.3 Here is an article. Read it well, then write as many cause – and –effect sentences as possible based on the article.

Health benefits of listening to music

News Desk

The Jakarta Post

–  /  Sat, June 8, 2019  /  06:02 am

Those in the creative sector are no strangers to depression and anxiety. It has been found that creatives are nearly three times more likely than other people to live with these illnesses.

But a study conducted by Help Musicians UK has uncovered some ways to lessen the burden.

While working in the arts can result in psychological and emotional distress due to the high-pressure industry, creativity still helps develop a healthy mind. There are many outlets, but many have found music to be most accessible.

For example, a paper by Dr. Valorie Salimpoor of Toronto, Canada, says that something as simple as listening to music can release dopamine, also known as the “happy hormone”. Because of this, listening to music in the morning can greatly affect our mood for the day.

Our hearts can also benefit from listening to music, as our heartbeats match the tempo of what we hear, resulting in lower blood pressure and deeper breathing patterns. In order to fully relax, listen to a song that has a tempo of 60 beats per minute.

Finally, music can be key to our concentration as well. Not only do our hearts keep pace with the tempo, but our brains do, too. Instrumental music that has a clear and repetitive rhythm can help you focus on the task at hand. (sul/kes)




To practice using sentences with cause and effect, you had better write an Analytical Exposition text.

(to remind you on what analytical exposition text is, open this link:

Here are some theses you can choose for your essay:

      1. Parents must protect their children from the negative effects of gadgets.
      2. It is important for every teacher to teach democracy and practice it in the class.
      3. Motivating students to collaborate is necessary.


To review the material, answer these questions!

    1. How does the cause with no emphasis differ from that with emphasis?
    2. What is the grammatical construction for the cause with no emphasis?
    3. What is the grammatical construction for the cause with emphasis?
    4. What is the difference between Hortatory Exposition and Analytical Exposition?


Chapter 2: Job Application Letter

BE : 3.2/4.2/5/1.1


Basic Competence

3.2 membedakan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan beberapa teks khusus dalam bentuk surat lamaran kerja, dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait jati diri, latar belakang pendidikan/pengalaman kerja, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya

4.2 surat lamaran kerja

4.2.1 menangkap makna secara kontekstual terkait fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks khusus dalam bentuk surat lamaran kerja, yang memberikan informasi antara lain jati diri, latar belakang pendidikan/pengalaman kerja

4.2.2 menyusun teks khusus surat lamaran kerja, yang memberikan informasi antara lain jati diri, latar belakang pendidikan/pengalaman kerja, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan, secara benar dan sesuai konteks

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will learn about Job Application Letter and review on  Description text. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure used to make your writing better and better.  Practicing how to compose the letter and a descriptive text is needed to enhance your understanding on their social function and text structure.


Fill in this form:

  1. Full name: ____________________________________
  2. Address: _____________________________________
  3. Place of birth: __________________________________
  4. Date of birth: __________________________________
  5. Sex: __________________________________
  6. Marital status: ___________________________________
  7. Experiences: _____________________________________
  8. Academic achievement: ______________________________
  9. References: _____________________________________
  10. Educational background:

a. Senior High School: ______________________________

b. College / University: ______________________________

c. Courses: ______________________________

What kind of form is it?


The form is used as one of the requirements when applying a job. Therefore, it is better to understand what a job application letter is and how to write it through these activities below!

Activity One

Read these application letters!


September 5, 2018

The Personnel Manager



Dear Sir/Madam,

I am writing to apply for the Marketing Sales position advertised by C.V. Peroni in Regency Post. As requested, I include a completed job application, my certification, my resume and references.

My GPA for Business Management is 3.6 and I have dealt with marketing for three years, so I believe that my experience and education are competitive enough for this position. My key strengths include the ability of verbal communication not only in English but also in Japanese and the high score of persuasion intelligence.

I would be grateful for a chance to speak with you regarding this position to discuss, and I would like you to see my resume for consideration.

Thank you for your time.




August 15, 2018

Mrs. Desiaswati

Soekarno Hatta 25


Dear Mrs. Desiaswati,

I am applying for a part-time translator position advertised in August 5, 2018 in your website. I am an undergraduate student of English Department in Marlin University.

My writing experience is considerable as I won some essay writing competitions. As a freelancer of some magazines, either English, French or Spain is the languages I deal with every day.

I am looking forward to hearing from you. Please, consider my resume and blog.

Thank you for your time and consideration.

Yours sincerely,


State whether the statements below about those letters are true or false!

Based on the first letter,

      1. C.V. Peroni has a business cooperation with Regency Post.
      2. The second paragraph is about the writer’s personal description.
      3. The writer’s ability in verbal communication can be an advantage for the company.
      4. The writer’s persuasion intelligence doesn’t match to the position.
      5. It is possible that the writer has more than one references.

Based on the second letter,

      1. The writer has graduated from Merlin University.
      2. The advertisement of the job vacancy is put on the printed media.
      3. The writer wants the position of the freelance translator.
      4. The writer speaks English, French and Spain very well.
      5. Desiaswati can use the writer’s blog to see his competence in writing.

Activity Two

Here are two advertisements on job vacancy. Read them carefully, then choose one of them and write a job application letter based on it. Surely, it is necessary for you to make few adjustments to fit on the requirements.

Advertisement 1:

Account Manager

King’s Cross, Central London

Competitive Salary

Posted: 19/06/2019

Closes: 19/07/2019

      • Hours: Full time
      • Contract: Contract
      • Education Level: Postgraduate degree (senior business/technical)
      • Job Function: Sales
      • Job Level: Management

Here at The Guardian, we believe the open exchange of information, ideas and opinions has the power to change the world for the better.

More people than ever before are reading, watching and listening to Guardian journalism from across the world. Over the past year The Guardian achieved record digital traffic with our highest number of regular readers and monthly page views averaging over 1.1 billion.

We’re now on a path to achieve the goal we announced last month of two million people supporting The Guardian by 2022. We hit our highest revenues in a decade and in 2019 achieved the goal we set three years earlier to break even.

That’s where you come in. We are recruiting an Account Manager to generate quality revenue that contributes towards the digital and print display advertising business and effectively represent a specific agency patch / group of clients.

About the role

In this role you will work as part of the Display sales team, to drive revenue by using core and specialist sales knowledge to grow and retain new and existing clients.

You will understand those clients who are current spenders, lapsed spenders and identify proactive approaches to clients and agencies.

About you

In order to be considered for this exciting role, we’re looking for you to have a minimum of two years’ sales experience as well as experience of selling different digital and print advertising products.

You’ll also have a strong understanding of the media landscape, as well as a passion for The Guardian brand.

And lastly, if you share in the Guardian’s mission and values, you’ll be well placed to help us succeed.

You can read more about the Guardian’s purpose here.

Does this all sound like you? Then we’d love to hear from you.

How to apply

To apply, please upload your latest CV and a cover letter which outlines why you’d love to take on this role, and why you’re a great match for we’re looking for.

About Us

The Guardian offers 26 days’ holiday and a competitive benefits package including a generous pension, healthcare, dental insurance options, cycle to work scheme and 2 paid volunteering days per year.

We have a strong commitment to your learning, development and well-being, with hundreds of different courses available – ranging from bite-sized e-learning courses, to on-site workshops and professional certifications.

It’s the talent, energy and commitment our people bring to our business that make us who we are. Across our business we have some of the brightest and best people in media and beyond: award winning journalists, cutting edge commercial teams, industry leading digital talent and much, much more.

We are a vibrant and diverse community with many events groups and forums to get involved in. Our Kings Place offices overlook Regents Canal, with the newly-developed Coal Drops Yard, Granary Square and St Pancras Square shops, restaurants and pop-ups.

We value and respect all differences in all people (seen and unseen) at the Guardian. We aspire to inclusive working experiences and an environment that reflects the audience we serve, where our people have equal access to career development opportunities, their voices are heard and can contribute to our future. The Guardian actively encourages applications from BAME candidates.

At The Guardian, many of our staff work flexibly and we will consider all requests for flexible working arrangements.


Advertisement 2:

Advertising & Creative Coordinator

Barnes & Noble4,346 reviews – New York, NY

Apply On Company Site

In this position you will help coordinate and execute the companies creative and advertising strategy for local events, sponsorship ads and Media Depts. You are responsible for the execution of projects, resolving any problems and making recommendations to improve the content and process. You work collaboratively with both internal partners and external agencies for the successful execution of projects. Provide support to the Senior Managers with the Monthly Marketing calendars, shipping reports, attaining production estimates and working on special projects throughout the year.

Essential Functions
      • Coordinate creative and advertising projects from concept to execution, making recommendations to content and process.
      • Responsible for coordination of monthly promotional and generic sign
      • Write project briefs to establish project deliverables
      • Select, negotiate and obtain production estimates from outside vendors and make recommendations on agency selection
      • Work with business owners on product layout and make recommendations on best content and approach
      • Communicate, finalize and approve layouts with both internal and external contacts
      • Ensure projects are produced and delivered on time and correctly
      • Evaluate success of project and make recommendations for future improvements
      • Create and draft communication/instructions to stores as needed
      • Provide support on various special projects ranging from creation of shipping reports, social media event graphics, and other creative assignments needed
      • Computer Skills: Microsoft Office required, Adobe Creative Suite knowledge a plus
      • Strong written and verbal communication skills
      • Strong problem-solving skills and attention to details
      • Bachelor’s degree in related field
      • 1 year office experience, preferably in creative or advertising


Activity Three

Now, it’s time for you to practice a job interview with your teacher. Send (=give) the letter that you have written based on the advertisement above, the resume (curriculum vitae), and references to the teacher.

Activity Four

Having a vocabulary practice is needed to enhance your ability in writing, so do the exercises below! These exercises are based on the two advertisements.

Find the appropriate synonym of the underlined words below! Surely, they should be in accordance with the context.

      1. Over the past year The Guardian achieved record digital traffic with our highest number of regular readers and monthly page views averaging over 1.1 billion.
      2. We hit our highest revenues in a decade and in 2019 achieved the goal we set three years earlier to break even.
      3. We are recruiting an Account Manager to generate quality revenue that contributes towards the digital and print display advertising business and effectively represent a specific agency patch / group of clients.
      4. The Guardian offers 26 days’ holiday and a competitive benefits package including a generous pension, healthcare, dental insurance options, cycle to work scheme and 2 paid volunteering days per year.
      5. We aspire to inclusive working experiences and an environment that reflects the audience we serve, where our people have equal access to career development opportunities, their voices are heard and can contribute to our future.

Use your knowledge to explain the words in the second advertisement below! Try not opening a dictionary, but use the context to get the correct meaning.

      1. Position
      2. Execution
      3. Recommendation
      4. Collaboratively
      5. Internal partners
      6. Project briefs
      7. Vendors
      8. Approve
      9. Creative assignments
      10. preferably

Activity Five

Having comprehended what a job application letter is, you need to review some genres of text. in this activity, you are to review a descriptive text. Open this link:

and do the exercises.


Answer the questions below to review what you have understood!

      1. What are commonly included in applying a job?
      2. What is a resume?
      3. What is the function of reference?
      4. What are needed to write on a job application letter?
      5. What are the common questions in the job interview?
      6. What is the functional purpose of descriptive text?
      7. What is the generic structure of descriptive text?


Descriptive Texts


 Communicative Purpose:

to describe a particular person, place or thing in detail.

 Generic Structure:

  1. Identification
  2. Description

Text One

             Have you ever walked through a cloud of gnats on a hot summer, only to have them follow you? No matter  how you swat at them, or even if you run, they won’t leave you alone. If so, you have something in common with an atom.

Atoms are the building blocks of molecules, which when combined, make up everything. From the smallest one-called amoeba, to every person who has ever lived, to the largest and brightest stars in the sky, atoms are everywhere.

Even way back in the time of ancient Greece, they wondered about atoms. That’s where the word comes from, ancient Greece. The word A’tomos, when translated into English, means: something that cannot be divided any further. So what does an atom look like? Up until very recently no one could say one way or another.

Technically we can’t see individual atoms, since there are no microscopes powerful enough. Since technology improves all the time, it may not be long before we can actually see a whole atom through a special microscope. Even though scientist cannot see atoms with microscopes, they have developed ways to detect them and learn about them.

Atoms are made up of three basic parts; protons, neutrons, and electrons. There is a core, or nucleus, and an electron cloud. The nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and neutral neutrons. The nucleus is held closely together by electromagnetic force.

The negatively charged electrons are bound to the nucleus, and zap around it in a cloud. Do you remember the cloud gnats? The gnats would be the electrons zipping around you, the nucleus.

There are different ways atoms are classified. They can be classified into elements, like oxygen, carbon, or hydrogen. All of the elements known to man so far can be found on the periodic table. The number of protons an atom has decides the chemical element properties, like its melting temperature and boiling point.

The study of atoms and tiny particles that are even smaller is called quantum mechanics. Scientists still have much to learn about atoms. Maybe you will enter the study of quantum mechanics and find a brand new element. Maybe they will even name it after you!

(from Super Teacher Worksheet by Leslie Cargile–

Choose the correct answer!

1. Atoms are everywhere because …  (A. They are building blocks of molecules     B. They make up every thing when combined     C. They follow us even if we run     D. They have been found in every living thing)

2. Atoms have become man’s concern since …  (A. The discovery of amoeba     B.  The ancient Greece     C. The discovery of microscope     D. The improved technology)

3. What is nucleus?   (A. A core that is composed of protons and neutrons     B. The basic part of atom that is closely held together     C. What bound the negatively charged electrons     D. A core which has electromagnetic force)

4. The classification of chemical elements is based on …  (A. The periodic table     B. The number of protons in an atom     C. Oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen     D. The number of electrons and neutrons)

5. The boiling point of each element is determined by …  (A. The number of protons     B. The number of electrons     C. The number of neutrons     D. The chemical properties of atom)

Read the two paragraphs carefully!

 Text Two

          The fireworks were by Gandalf, the magician. They were not only brought by him, but designed and made by him; and the special effects, set pieces, and flights of rockets were let off by him. But there was also a generous distribution of squibs, crackers, sparklers, torches, dwarf-candles, elf-fountains, goblin-barkers and thunder-claps. They were all superb. The art of Gandalf improved with age.

There were rockets like a flight of scintillating birds singing with sweet voices. There were green trees with trunks of dark smoke; their leaves opened like a whole spring unfolding in a moment, and their shining branches dropped glowing flowers down upon the astonished hobbits disappearing with a sweet scent just before they touched their upturned faces. There were fountains of butterflies that flew glittering into the trees; there were pillars of colored fires that rose and turned into eagles, or sailing ships, or phalanx of flying swans; there was a red thunderstorm and a shower of yellow rain; there was a forest of silver spears that sprang suddenly into the water with a hiss like a hundred hot snakes. And there was also one last surprise, in honor of Bilbo, and it startled the hobbits exceedingly, as Gandalf intended. The lights went out. A great smoke went up. It shaped itself like a mountain seen in the distance, and began to glow at the summit. It spouted green and scarlet flames. Out flew a red-golden dragon- not life-size, but terribly life-like: fire came from his jaws, his eyes glared down; there was a roar, and he whizzed three times over the heads of the crowd. They all ducked, and many fell flat on their faces. The dragon passed like an express train, turned a somersault, and burst over Bywater with a deafening explosion.

(taken from  the novel :The Lord of The Ring by J.R.R. Tolkien, page twenty eight)

Answer the questions!

  1. What is described in the first paragraph?
  2. What are described in the second paragraph?

Text  Three

Frodo and Sam stood as if enchanted. The wind puffed out. The leaves hung silently again on stiff branches. There was another burst of song, and then suddenly, hopping and dancing along the path, there appeared above the reeds an old battered hat with a tall crown and a long blue feather stuck in the band. With another hope and a bound there came into a view a man, or so it seemed. At any rate he was too large and heavy for a hobbit, if not quite tall enough for one of the Big People, though he made noise enough for one, slumping along with great yellow boots on his thick legs, and charging through grass and rushes like a cow going down to drink.  He had a blue coat and a long brown beard; his eyes were blue and bright, and his face was red as a ripe apple, but creased into a hundred wrinkles of laughter. In his hands he carried on a large leaf as on a tray a small pile of white water-lilies.

(taken from  the novel :The Lord of The Ring by J.R.R. Tolkien, page 145)

Visualize the second text!


From the text two and text three above, choose the word which best defines the underlined one!

  1. Fireworks =   A. a display by flammable compositions     B. a display of temper or intense conflict
  2. Generous =   A. freely sharing money     B. providing more than the amount


  1. Sparklers =   A. diamond     B. a firework
  2. Superb =   A. extremely good      B. extremely brilliant
  3. Scintillate =  A.  emit sparks       B. move very fast
  4. Scent =   A. a smell      B.  a course of discovery
  5. Glitter =   A.  to be brilliantly attractive     B.  to shine brightly
  6. Spring =     A. shoot      B.  grow as plant
  7. Spout =     A. flow out with force       B. speak in oratorical manner
  8. Whiz =    A.  fly fast while hizzing       B. rotate very rapidly
  9. Duck =   A. to plunge       B. to bow
  10. Batter =   A. damage by hard usage       B. beat with successive blows
  11. Slump =   A. to sit down suddenly       B.  move down suddenly
  12. Crease =   A. wrinkle       B. wound




Review on Kung Fu Panda 3

REVIEW on Kung Fu Panda 3

Communicative purpose : to criticize an art work or event for a public audience

 Generic structure

  1. orientation
  2. interpretive recount
  3. evaluation
  4. evaluation summation

Po is a panda whose destiny as a dragon warrior occurred unintentionally. He was chosen to bring peace together with the Furious Five. Their stories can be found in the first two sequels. While in Kung Fu Panda 3, he had suddenly to teach those Furious Five after the death of Oogway, their teacher.  Po’s unique character that sometimes causes his friends angry or annoyed still dominates the story.  His being a teenager with his labile emotion attracts every one to enjoy the movie.

The writer always gave a surprising event at the beginning of the movie that led to the whole story. In this Kung Fu Panda 3, the Oogway’s death which forced Po to teach his own friends posited him in a difficult situation. While he was still confused how to do it, Kai who wanted to take Po’s Chi was chasing him. Kai had taken the great masters’ chi, except Oogway’s that was given to Po when he was still child. There was a relation among Pandas –in Panda village – with Oogway and Kai in the past.  On his way to find who he was and learn how to use his Chi, Po met someone who directed him to Panda village. There he studied to be the real Panda but still not learnt how to use his Chi until Kai came and attacked his friends. He didn’t think about the Chi anymore because he remembered that master Shiffu could use his Chi to bloom a flower after 30 year training. Then he fought Kai with his own ability helped by all pandas and his friend, Tigress.

What is interesting in this film is that the writer tried to combine between the eastern culture through the Panda’s habit and the western one through the language they use. He also successfully sent some moral values that can be taken not only for children but adults as well – like when Po was teaching, he taught them not to become what he wanted but led them to be themselves. Also when he began to know who he was, he realized that he started to be able to learn his chi. So, this teaches us that, when we come back to where we are from and appreciate our own culture, we can get our power.

This movie is recommended to all ages for it motivates every one to be brave to dream of becoming what they want. Besides, it is entertaining. The excellent graphic designs and the animation make it so.

(reviewed by Hedwig)

You may do this exercise by completing the sentences below based on the text above.

  1. The first sequel told about …
  2. Po’s labile emotion describes …
  3. From the second paragraph, we can understand that Oogway and Kai …
  4. Chi is …
  5. Finally, Po fought Kai with his own ability because …
  6. Paragraph three evaluates …
  7. What everyone can learn from the movie is …


 Find the word in the text having the meaning of this below:

  1. The events that will necessarily happen to a particular person or thing in the future
  2. Tell or show (someone) how to get somewhere
  3. A published, broadcast, or recorded work that continues the story or develops the theme of an earlier one
  4. The regard that something is held to deserve; the importance, worth, or usefulness of something
  5. Advise or suggest (something) as a course of action
  6. Put in position
  7. Of or characterized by emotions which are easily aroused, freely expressed, and tend to alter quickly and spontaneously.
  8. Recognize the full worth of.
  9. Not on purpose.
  10. The mental and moral qualities distinctive to an individual.
  11. The ideas, customs, and social behavior of a particular people or society
  12. Extremely good; outstanding
  13. Become fully aware of (something) as a fact; understand clearly.
  14. Be the most important or conspicuous person or thing in.
  15. Cause (someone) to have interest in or enthusiasm for something.

Review Texts 

Review on The Goblin: The Lonely and The Great God

The Goblin: The Lonely and The Great God

Korean Drama has become internationally favourite. One of those is The Guardian (Goblin): The Lonely and The Great God released December 2, 2016-2017 in 16 episodes. It was written by the brilliant writer, Kim Eun Sook. The Goblin which intensely stirs up viewers’ emotion is among some wonderful stories written by  Kim Eun Sook, like Secret Garden (2010), A Gentleman’s Dignity (2012), The Heirs (2013), Descendants of the Sun (2016). Directed by Lee Eung-Bok, this drama goes to the third rank in South Korea. This fantasy romance is an epic tale depicting the Goryeo kingdom founded in 918. Goblin is known as dokkaebi in Korea. Dokkaebi physically presented in many different shapes in different time periods either has immense supernatural powers, can bring good harvests, big catches and great fortunes to humans, or is a defender against evil spirits.

The story begins with the return of the General Kim Shin (starred by Gong Yoo) from the war. Unfortunately, his return meant death for his people and even his family including his beloved sister who was the Queen. The Emperor had warned him not to return alive before he gave a sword to him and sent him to the war. Finally, he was killed by the sword accused as betrayer. But he was cursed to be immortal and became the Goblin. His super power due to his immortality didn’t make him happy. He felt so lonely and desperately sad as he had to see all his loved ones leaving him. One by one. He could end his life and die peacefully only when his bride took the sword from his chest. After seeking for his bride for about 900 years with the great desire of ending his lonely life, he met his young and cheerful bride, Ji Eun Tak (starred by Kim Go-Eun). Her youthful exuberance as a high school student, despite her miserable daily life after the death of her mother, revived Kim Shin. He didn’t want to die anymore. He fell so hard on her that he wanted to have a longer life with her. The goblin was the CEO of so many assets both in Korea and Canada. The Yoo family took care of them for years. While having a relationship with his bride, he met with a good-looking grim reaper (starred by Lee Dong-wook). Their relationship was strange at the beginning as the Grim Reaper forgot his past. What he knew was that he must have had such the greatest sin that he couldn’t get the mercy. He could live as human and as a Grim Reaper. When he was a human, he avoided touching them as he would see their past. However, when visiting the gorgeous woman named Sunny (starred by Yoo In-na) with whom he fell in love at the first meeting, touching her hand was unavoidable. During the brief touch, he could see a sight of an emperor and his empress. Then, he told the Goblin about it and also about the picture of a noble woman that the Goblin had. The picture made his heart hurt and cried. Seeing the Grim Reaper in despair every day, the Goblin finally told about his story. He felt that Sunny was his sister, so he asked the Grim Reaper to touch her again for sure. He agreed to, but didn’t want to continue his relationship with Sunny. He met and kissed her. While kissing, they both could see the sight of who Sunny was. She understood why she always felt hurt when missing the Grim Reaper while the Grim Reaper knew that he was Wang Yeo, the emperor. After the Goblin had known about the Grim Reaper through the ghost of Park Joong-heon, a cunning and manipulative eunuch from Goryeo Dynasty, he desired to kill him for revenge. However, he remembered that he was his sister’s lover, so he asked the Grim Reaper to take care of his sister despite her leaving him. On the other side, Eun Tak felt that she wasn’t worthy enough for the Goblin due to the failure of taking the sword. But the Goblin ensured and promised to protect her life because of the appearance of Park Joong-heon who wanted to kill her. When she finally could hold and draw the sword, the Goblin realized that only the sword on his chest could kill Park Joong-heon. This meant his death. Soon after Kim Shin’s disappearance, Eun Tak wrote everything about him and that she was his bride so that she wouldn’t lose the memory of him.  For nine years, Eun Tak had a good life and had no memory of the Goblin, but her heart often hurt without any reason until the day when she blew a candle. This summoned Kim Shin who was lying on the vast desert in misery. He got up and appeared in front of Eun Tak as the General Kim Shin. Then, the Goblin’s frequent appearance returned her memory back on him. Unfortunately, after their wedding Eun Tak died, but she promised him to come back. And she did.


The story is quite fantastic as the writer can combine a fantasy, history, people’s belief, and the modern life perfectly. It began from the historical background story of Kim Shin and Wang yeo, then it fancifully comes to the present time. It is depicted from the main character’ life span, the Goblin. Not only does the writer brilliantly stir the viewers’ emotion but also Gong Yoo as the lead actor expertly exudes various emotion like sadness, jealousy, fear, joy and solemnity which are shown in:

Friendship,  the friendship between the Goblin and the Grim Reaper is strange enough as one didn’t remember his past while the other lived with his terrible past. They helped each other despite their oposing to each other. For example, when The Goblin had to pay the Grim Reaper’s bill (eps:7), the Grim Reaper had to erase the broken car owners due to the Goblin’s power (eps:8). They also laughed at their silly actions, drank alcohol together when they were desolate, yet encouraged each other after that (eps:6). They depend on each other.

Humors, The two men interaction sometimes shows their childish side, such as their irritating expression when the Goblin tried to kick the Grim Reaper out of his house in front of Yoo Duk-Hwa’s grandfather (eps. 3). Goblin said,”Take care ad never come back” and The Grim Reaper answered,”Be happy until you die there.” In episode 5: When they bought a smart phone and learn it, they acted so naturally that we felt they were so truly stupid and ridiculous. Kim Shin who is always cool, also shows his silly action when watching horror movie with Eun Tak (eps:7).

Power, both men often showed their power while they were eating or cooking together. The writer excellently presents the Goblin’s power when he pushed Eun Tak to the air and saved her (eps:7). It caused many cars flew to the air and dropped hard to one another. How the Goblin prevented his bride from a bus crash (eps:8) that may have killed so many people was another perfect way to show his great power.  His face, when doing this, looked stern and frightening.

Jealousy, In spite of the great power and the 900 of age the Goblin has, he did childish things such as meeting Tae-hee, then asking The Grim Reaper to erase Tae-hee ‘s memory on Eun Tak. Tae-hee was Eun Tak’s first love when they were both still children. The Goblin also told everyone that he was her fiancee to avoid the blind dating arranged for Eun Tak by her friend.

Sadness, Few moments which can drain the viewers’ tears the most are firstly when the Goblin was disappearing while both of them expressing that they loved each other. Eun Tak’s cry was heartbreaking. Secondly, Seeing Eun Tak died because of the car crash, the Goblin broke down and cried like a child.  The next, is when Sunny decided to leave the Grim Reaper forever and asked to embrace him.

Romance, The romantic scenes between both The Goblin and Eun Tak and The Grim Reaper and Sunny can be seen from almost each episode. The strength of the Korean Drama lies on how breathtakingly each romantic relation between the main characters is woven. The romance is delivered gradually that can raise the viewer’s curiosity what will happen next. There are two most romantic scenes. The first is between The Goblin and Eun Tak when Eun Tak remembered that the CEO was Kim Shin disappearing nine years before. Eun Tak was crying desperately while repeatedly saying “I miss you.” Then, Kim Shin appeared and kissed her with all his heart. The second is betweenThe Grim Reaper and Sunny when they met again in the next life after their death. He kissed her passionately as if he had been waiting for that moment for ages.

All of the talented actors and actresses colour the atmosphere of the characters’ emotion. Gong Yoo (the most handsome Goblin) is able to both play the Shin’s different sides (example: being cool, childish, foolish, in love, sorrowful, scared, brave and fierce) perfectly and lead the other actors and actresses to perform excellently. Kim Go-Eun (The Goblin’s bride) shows her capability of acting as the girl with the emotional journey. She can follow the professional actor’s acting so well that there seems to be a strong chemistry between them. Each of their meeting cleverly causes the viewers either provoked or pitied.  Lee Dong-wook (The Grim Reaper) acts as such a handsome commanding grim reaper that his presence gives a long impression on the viewers’ mind. His skillfully transition from the powerful and scary man to an awkward or bumbling one makes him become the character to be longed for every episode. Yoo In-na (The Grim Reaper’s lover) has naturally stunning beauty. She is the best choice to be Lee Dong-wook’s partner. They are well suited in playing as the longing two lovers, even sometimes their interaction is more romantic and dramatic than that of The Goblin and his bride. Yook Sung Jae did well as Yoo Duk Hwa. His family has served the Goblin for 900 years. He looked immature and a bit spoiled, but he has a good heart and is helpful. He is a nice addition to the Goblin family as he connects each main character. His expression could transform into being stern and dignified when he was possessed by the Angel.

The cinematography is amazingly artistic. The shots and individual scenes in each episode are so impressively set up that the viewers can see the detail of the characters’expression. For example, the scene of the silent and romantic stare between the Goblin and his bride. The shots portray the fantasies like Dokkaebi fire that is a glimmering light or tall blue flames heralding the appearance of dokkaebi and the flickering sparks of light when the Goblin was disappearing. Many scenic places are shot in such a way that viewers are amazed at their beauty and attracted to visit them. First, Unhyeongung Palace Yanggwan Hall where the Goblin Resides is the majestic residence that was constructed in 1907 by a Japanese ambassador who was looking for the favor of the royal family.  Second, A Romantic, Nature-Filled Attraction, Ilgamho Lake is where Ji Eun-tak met her first love Tae-hee after having an admission test. It is located within Konkuk University’s Seoul campus but is open to the public all year-round. The lake is surrounded by plentiful greenery offering a gorgeous stroll. Third, Jumunjin Breakwater where Eun Tak summoned the Goblin at the first time provides the calm and silent place to meditate. Fourth, Buckwheat Fields, White Flowers Field is the location where the Goblin is ‘stabbed’ and the place he will return to when he dies. The vast white blooming flowers evoke the romantic scent. Last but not the least is the overseas filming that is in Canada. Chateau Frontenac Hotel, Parc du Bastion-de-la-Reine (Green pastures with the Tombstones (Props)), and Parc Samuel-Hollande (The Goblin catching the falling maple leaf) are the memorable places with breathtaking scenery that will linger in the viewers’ mind. The heroic battles of Kim Shin are the other quite impressive shots in the opening episode portraying historical  portion.

Goblin is an epic tale with a story that spans centuries. It presents fantasy but is full of mythology which reveals the secrets of an ancient kingdom. In the present time, the lonely and weary Goblin whose age is about nine centuries connects the past time to the present one so that the story doesn’t lose its plot. It is admitted that the plot is confusing for the first four episodes. However, it becomes clearly seen for the rest for each episode is woven wonderfully. The story is very rich of both cultural concept and fantasy arousing plenty of questions. When they are answered, the viewers will find out that the episode is getting more and more interesting. Although this drama is romantic, there are some humors or jokes erasing the boredom of the plot, especially the bromance between the Goblin and the Grim Reaper. Their fun interaction is either hilarious or awkward. Each character is so memorable and engaging that the viewers will remember the talented actors and actresses as the characters they played. This drama successfully not only promotes the South Korean culture but also brings Korean dramas to the world. In short, The Guardian (Goblin): The Lonely and The Great God is highly recommended for it teaches what is true love, friendship, kindness and forgiveness.

(Reviewed by Hedwig Maria)


Questions for understanding the text:

  1. How does the writer begin and end the story?
  2. What points are reviewed?
  3. If you have seen the drama, what points can be added to be reviewed?

Review Texts




Chapter 1: Offer

BE : 3.1/4.1/5/1.1


Basic Competence

3.1 menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi interpersonal lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan menawarkan jasa, serta menanggapinya, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan May I help you?, What can I do for you? What if …?)

4.1 menyusun teks interaksi interpersonal lisan dan tulis sederhana yang melibatkan tindakan menawarkan jasa, dan menanggapinya dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks      

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will learn about Offer and review on Hortatory Text. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure used to make the whole dialogue and composition meaningful.  Practicing how to compose a dialogue and a composition is needed to enhance your understanding on their social function and text structure.


Complete the dialogue below by choosing the provided expressions!

A. Would you like to order some food for vegetarian?  B. Is there anything I can help?  C. Can I have your order, please?   D. Would you like me to explain all of the food or only for vegetarian?  E. You can write your order on this piece of paper.

A man:        All of the food in this menu looks delicious.

Waitress:   …

A man:        Sure, I’m vegetarian.

Waitress:   You should choose this one, but if you don’t want something spicy, you may choose these.

A man:        Wait! I don’t really understand the language written on this menu.

Waitress:   …

A man:        just for vegetarian, please!

Waitress:   Ok. This one contains much cabbage and is not spicy, but these two are spicy enough and contain spinach and lettuce.

A man:        I see. Thank you for your explanation. I think I would rather to have this one with lettuce.

Waitress:     …


When you get the correct answers, what does each sentence express?


To know more about this expression, do some activities below!


Find other similar expressions you’ve ever heard. Write them on the board so that they can be discussed by the class.


After the class’ discussion on those expressions, use each of them or all of them in a (some) dialogue(s). Do this with your seatmate. When you finish it, let the teacher check your work.


To enhance your understanding on this material, you can do some exercises below!

3.1   Complete each dialogue by giving appropriate response!

  1. Bear: Would you like to taste the food?

Dog:     ___________

  1. Bary: You can bring these books home if you need them to write your thesis.

Dick:     ___________

  1. Bela: Shall I make a hotel reservation for your family?

Dale:     ___________

  1. Bonn: What should I bring for the party tomorrow?

Dole:     ___________

  1. Bird: Can I chop these garlics and onions?

Dog:     ___________

  1. Bear: What would you like me to do now?

Dog:     ___________

  1. Bean: Would you like some more ice cubes?

Dug:     ___________

  1. Buny: Can I help you with these flowers?

Dony:     ___________

  1. Bear: May I offer you an assistant to help you decorate this room?

Dog:     ___________

  1. Bree: I’d be happy to train your staff how to speak in front of the public.

Dea:     ___________


3.2    Read each dialogue well, then write where it takes place and what they are probably doing.

  1. Mr. Crab: This is really a hot day. I need something to make myself fresh.

Sponge:       Why don’t you just change your clothes with the swimming suit. Or shall I buy you some coconut water?

Mr. Crab:     That’s kind of you to offer and giving me advice, but I prefer spending my time in the air conditioned room to swimming there with a lot of people.

  1. Neon: Oh…my God, I spilt some salty soya sauce to this salad. They will send a complaint to the boss.

Sean:             Don’t worry! Let me make it more tasteful.

Neon:           That’s great. Thank you. What will you do?

Sean:             I’ll put more vinegar and a little black pepper and mixed it with the vegetables.

  1. Duck: Why is it difficult to find some information to support this statement?

Dick:              Do you want me to search it on other books? There are still many books about it in the second stair.

Duck:             Thank you for your offer, but I think I’ll change the topic.

  1. A man: Are you looking for something or someone?

A woman:   Yes, I lost my child. I left him here for I needed to go to toilet. When I came back, he was gone. It’s so crowded here.

A man:          Please, stay here. I can ask the security over there to announce it.

A woman:   You may not do that. The one who will kill him may know that he is here.

  1. A stranger: Would you like me to call an ambulance?

A man:          No, thank you. I’m alright.

A stranger:  But, you look to be badly injured. Or Can I drive you home?

A man:          Don’t worry, I can manage it.


Make a group of three, then practice having a two-minute dialogue. You may either perform it at the front of the class or record it by your mobile phone.


In this activity, you will review your knowledge on Hortatory Exposition text. So, open this link:

Do all the exercises. You may rewrite one of the text, but try developing it with your own arguments.


Answer the questions below to review what has been learnt:

  1. What construction is used to express an offer?
  2. Give an example of when or where an offer is used!
  3. What is the generic structure of Hortatory Text?


Review on The book of The Lord of The Ring

Review on the book of The lord of The Ring

“The Lord of The Ring” is one of the most fantastic story written by J.R.R. Tolkien. His intelligence in imagining the world which was divided into four areas, South, North, West and East – each was authorized by the great power with unique characters – is outstanding. The creation of the names of the main characters and the names of the places is one of his amazing ability of imagination.  Unlike the other fantasy novels, these three books – The Fellowship of The Ring,  The Two Towers, and The Return of The King – focus on describing how perilous is the journey of the Hobbit, the Ring bearer, to extinguish the Lord of the Ring which causes great chaos everywhere due to such a great power to every one wearing it.

There were 8 rings made by Sauron to control the world. Unfortunately, the main ring was lost and found by a Hobbit, named Bilbo. Sauron needed tens of years to find it. Then, he felt that the ring was somewhere in the Shire. So, he commanded his followers to find it to get his power back. The Hobbit who kept it for years was getting older, so he asked his niece, Frodo to keep it. Gandalf, the white wizard who used to be Bilbo’s friend, came to Shire where the Hobbit lived. He told Bilbo that Sauron had known that the ring was in the Shire, so he asked whether Bilbo still kept it.  Bilbo told him that he had given it to Frodo. He, Bilbo’s nephew, then agreed to bring the ring to the mountain of Mordor to destroy it after Gandalf had told the complete story about it and how dangerous it would be when the ring came back to Sauron.  The journey to Mordor was full of dangerous experiences that almost  made him died, yet he succeeded to destroy the ring.

The plot of the story seems so easy to follow. If the writers hadn’t put the conflicts arising the curiosity of the reader to see the solutions or the extreme challenges Frodo had to face, the story would have been so boring. What made the story interesting is how Frodo, an ordinary person who didn’t have any power, fought the great power of the king of the dark, Sauron which was helped by other great powers too.  The other reason why the reader will be stuck on these three books is the beauty of the language, especially the poems that were used by the elfs to communicate.  They are not only touching, but also teaching moral lessons. Despite the strange and difficult words chosen by the writer to describe the situation and the characters, he was successful in leading the reader to come into his imaginative world he created.

Reading these books will show us that how great the power is can be beaten by the simple, and honest man. Besides, these books teach us how to express our feelings through beautiful poems and languages.

(reviewed by Hedwig Maria)

 Paraphrase the underlined sentences in the text!



  1. Fantastic
  2. Destroy
  3. Authorize
  4. extinguish
  5. Fellowship
  6. divide
  7. Perilous
  8. imagine
  9. Chaos
  10. complete
  11. Bearer
  12. succeed
  13. Wizard
  14. solution
  15. Curiosity
  16. describe
  17. Extreme
  18. challenge
  19. Imaginative
  20. despite

Review Texts 

Analytical Exposition Texts


Communicative Purpose:

To reveal the readers that something is the important case

 Generic Structure:

  1. Thesis
  2. Arguments
  3. Reiteration/Conclusion

Text One

Make an outline of this text!

The popularity of social media eases every one to do what they want. They may do online business, or post their creative handmade or just post hate speech.  Many Indonesian youth  don’t want to fall behind the telecommunication technology, however  they don’t understand  how to make it useful for their life. Therefore,  it is important for the youth to post the positive things than the negative ones.

The reasons why posting the positive things is important is firstly, because it shows that we have good attitude, especially when we use the language, Indonesian or English one. Writing to social media means realizing that whatever we write will be read by others, anyone. Sometimes some managers use the language of what is posted by their employees in the mass media to know their character. It is possible that they will fire them when those employees spread the hate speech or negative things on their own twitter or Facebook as it shows their bad character. Secondly, posting the positive things like showing our participation in social organizations or other voluntary activities may boost our personal branding. Based on some researchers, such as Hendy Kurniawan, the Global Human Resources Leader and the Founder of East West talent, improving career can be done by posting personal branding. It is admitted that in Indonesia, posting an achievement is considered boastful. But surely, we should choose good words to make what we post won’t cause jealousy  but motivate others to do better instead. Posting an achievement may also interest global companies to see their competence and open the chance for improving their career.

In short, social media becomes  sharp blade which can kill the young people’s life or give them a wonderful one. This depends on how they use those media. Surely, posting positive things is absolutely the wise choice for improving their career and future life.

((Written by Hedwig, inspired by “Intisari, February 2016”)



Arrange these jumbled words into the correct words, then write their part of speech. (The words are taken from the text)

  1. P-O-L-A-Y-P-U-R-I-T
  2. H-D-A-N-D-E-M-A
  3. U-F-U-S-E-L
  4. U-A-T-T-D-E-T-I
  5. E-Y-E-M-P-L- O-E
  6. E-E-C-I-A-S-L-Y-P-L
  7. C-R-A-A-H-R-C-T-E
  8. J-U-E-A-S-Y-L-O
  9. B-O-A-S-T-F-U-L
  10. A-N-H-C-V-E-I-E-M-E-T
  11. A-Y-B-S-O-T-E-L-L-U
  12. S-O-P-E-A-R-N-L
  13. I-E-R-N-T-S-T-E
  14. N-S-C-O-I-E-R-D
  15. Y-V-O-N-T-A-R-L-U

After you know the part of speech of each word, put it in a good and meaningful sentence!



Put these sentences below into the correct positions in the text

  1. These conditions are going to form them to be inconsiderate or insensitive persons.
  2. When communicating through phones, they only hear the voice that can be camouflaged.
  3. They forget that touching and facing each other when talking especially with their children is important while they are growing emotionally and physically.
  4. There are some phases of their emotional development during those first fifteen years which require the parents’ presence.
  5. Thus, this may avoid the misunderstanding between parents and children.
  6. Their love which is shown through their great attention on them is the most effective to take their children away from negative things.
  7. They want to show that they are powerful because their parents ignore their existence.
  8. Most of them said that they consumed the drugs because they didn’t get any attention from their parents and felt depressed of being alone.


                 The change in the communication style in a family effects on the relationship among the dwellers.  Parents who both work feel it enough to communicate with their spouse or children by phone. (1) …. Besides, the need to actualize themselves  makes these children busy with their own business. The impact is that there is no time to be together or to interact between the parents and children. (2) … Therefore, it is crucial to have a direct communication in a family. Below are the reasons for this.

First, Direct communication develops the family bond. The body language or the facial expressions when speaking can help the children understand what their parents want or vice versa, because  they  sometimes cannot express their desire or need in words. (3) … Therefore parents won’t know that they may have problems. But when they are talking face to face, they cannot hide what they feel because their face, especially eyes will tell the truth. (4) …

Second, the first educators for children are parents, even they must educate them when they are still in the womb. The first fifteen years are the crucial time for developing their children’s characters. (5) … Unfortunately, many parents feel comfortable when their children are busy with their gadget as they don’t disturb their business. They don’t even pay attention to what their children access. Look at the consequences of their ignorance recently. Based on the report of the Commission for  Indonesian children protection (KPAI) from 2011 to 2016, there are 1,024 cases of bullying that involve children both physically and verbally in social media; they either are the victims or bullies. And the most cases happen in big cities. Some psychologists told that bullying done by children is the effect of their desire toward actualizing themselves. (6) … It goes worse when they often become the target of their parents’ anger.  Another consequence is that many children or teenagers get involved in drugs. According to the national narcotics body (BNN), two in one hundred teenagers are addictive to drugs. In 2016, 42,429 of them are being rehabilitated. (7) …

In conclusion, parents are the main educators for their children, so direct communication between them and their children is a must. (8) …  Indonesia is fighting the drugs and children abuse nowadays; and the president asks all parents to tight the family bond for the sake of their children’s future.  (by Hedwig Maria)



Find the word in the text which has the definition below!

  1. Thoughtlessly causing hurt or inconvenience to others
  2. in a state of unhappiness or despondency
  3. A strong feeling of wanting to have something or wishing for something to happen.
  4. (of a substance or activity) causing or likely to cause someone to become dependent on it
  5. Make a reality of.
  6. Seek to harm, intimidate, or coerce (someone perceived as vulnerable)
  7. Hide or disguise the presence of (a person, animal, or object) by means of Actions or devices intended to mislead
  8. In a particular place.
  9. A result or effect, typically one that is unwelcome or unpleasant.
  10. Use (something) to bad effect or for a bad purpose; misuse
  11. Have or include (something) as a necessary or integral part or result.
  12. a link that binds people together in a relationship
  13. Successful in producing a desired or intended result.
  14. Restore (someone) to health or normal life by training and therapy after imprisonment, addiction, or illness.
  15. to be or become involved in communication, social activity, or work with somebody else or one another



Read the text well, then make some questions based on the text!

The fact that the government banned some features (pictures and videos) on some social media at the end of May 2019 depicts the low level of people’s digital literacy. If they had been literate, the ban wouldn’t have been the final choice. The ban was aimed to avoid the spread of hoaxes about the chaos happening in Jakarta due to the official announcement of the result of the presidential election for people haven’t been able to decide between the fact or true information and hoaxes or fake information. The strong belief to the wrong information can lead to the disintegration of the nation. Sadly, young people whom this country counts on are easily influenced by such fake information. This is due to the fact that their custom of reading and analyzing article is so low that they just believe in whatever is written. This will endanger the existence of our country as they are going to be the decision makers of how this country goes. Therefore, it’s urgent to increase the students’ literacy.

Memorizing still becomes teachers’ preference for students to do to avoid the difficulty in answering the students’ various questions. The result of this is not only killing the students’ creativity but also stopping their critical thinking process. Based on PISA assessment, our students’ improvement on reading competence climbs very slowly. Their point which was 386 in 2012 only became 397 in 2015.  With the extremely poor literacy, students who are bombed by the fake information will be easily targeted to become terrorist. They just believe whatever is written or shown is true. Even the ambitious politicians can use them to achieve what they want. The following illustration shows how destructive people with low literacy is. Students at an elementary school are given the false fact about other religions and races made by their teacher. The teacher repeats and makes the fact memorized by the students without even getting the chance to ask why or what it is. This fact, then, is internalized into their mind as the truth, so when they watch about the terrorist attack, for example, they feel happy. Seeing this impact, we can clearly predict what they will do when they are grown up. In contrast, the students who are given true information about their surrounding and guided how to find the correct information, analyze and evaluate it will be able to protect themselves from the fake information. Hence, they will be more aware of what is wrong and what is true and can focus on developing themselves. When young people have their own principle of life and are not fragile on the environment force, they will become more independent and self-confident to grow up.

Either the willingness to read or the habit of reading books can’t appear instantly. It needs both a step –by-step process and parents’ and teacher’s high literacy. In fact, at school the high literacy of teachers is demanded in 2013 curriculum by which students are expected to have not only capability of learning by themselves but also high order thinking skills. Unfortunately, there are still many teachers who like chatting either on their smart phone or with their colleagues better than reading books when they are not in class. Our country will be able to develop as fast as the developed countries do when all teachers are aware of their important role in motivating and guiding students to be more literate.  However, some international awards for science research won by few students become some drops of rain in the middle of a desert. This proves that our young people truly have high competence in literacy. If there are more and more students getting interested in reading activity in which their curiosity is built, there will be many innovations done by them and our natural resources can be employed for the sake of the nation’s welfare and environment’s protection such as the research on bioplastic from cassava as the alternative of plastic bags.

No matter how difficult to get the students accustomed to read or write is, many creative efforts must be found to achieve the students’ high literacy considering our nation’s existence in the globalization era.