to present information about something, as it is.
- General classification
Read the text well, then do the task below!
Psychologists have different theories about how information enters long-term memory. The traditional view is that that information enters short-term memory and, depending on how it is processed, may then transfer to long-term memory. However, another view is that short-term memory and long-term memory are arranged in a parallel rather than sequential fashion. That is, information may be registered simultaneously in the two systems.
There seems to be no finite capacity to long-term memory. People can learn and retain new facts and skills throughout their lives. Although older adults may show a decline in certain capacities—for example, recalling recent events—they can still profit from experience even in old age. For example, vocabulary increases over the entire life span. The brain remains plastic and capable of new learning throughout one’s lifetime, at least under normal conditions. Certain neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, can greatly diminish the capacity for new learning.
Psychologists once thought of long-term memory as a single system. Today, most researchers distinguish three long-term memory systems: episodic memory, semantic memory, and procedural memory.
Episodic memory refers to memories of specific episodes in one’s life and is what most people think of as memory. Episodic memories are connected with a specific time and place. If you were asked to recount everything you did yesterday, you would rely on episodic memory to recall the events. Similarly, you would draw on episodic memory to describe a family vacation, the way you felt when you won an award, or the circumstances of a childhood accident. Episodic memory contains the personal, autobiographical details of our lives.
Semantic memory refers to our general knowledge of the world and all of the facts we know. Semantic memory allows a person to know that the chemical symbol for salt is NaCl, that dogs have four legs, that Thomas Jefferson was president of the United States, that 3 × 3 equals 9, and thousands of other facts. Semantic memories are not tied to the particular time and place of learning. For example, in order to remember that Thomas Jefferson was president, people do not have to recall the time and place that they first learned this fact. The knowledge transcends the original context in which it was learned. In this respect, semantic memory differs from episodic memory, which is closely related to time and place. Semantic memory also seems to have a different neural basis than episodic memory. Brain-damaged patients who have great difficulties remembering their own recent personal experiences often can access their permanent knowledge quite readily. Thus, episodic memory and semantic memory seem to represent independent capacities.
Procedural memory refers to the skills that humans possess. Tying shoelaces, riding a bicycle, swimming, and hitting a baseball are examples of procedural memory. Procedural memory is often contrasted with episodic and semantic memory. Episodic and semantic memory are both classified as types of declarative memory because people can consciously recall facts, events, and experiences and then verbally declare or describe their recollections. In contrast, nondeclarative, or procedural, memory is expressed through performance and typically does not require a conscious effort to recall.
(Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.)
- Why can people learn throughout their lives?
- Write the main difference among the three memories!
- Give two examples for each memory in a long term memory system!
- What proves that episodic memory and semantic memory represent independent capabilities?
- What differs the declarative memory and nondeclarative one?
Read the text carefully!
Wines are categorized using a number of different methods. Sometimes they are grouped into different categories by grape variety, region of origin, by color, by the name of the wine maker or viticulturalist, or by production technique. Three basic groups of wines are most easily distinguishable for the consumer: table wines, sparkling wines, and fortified wines.
Table wines, also known as still or natural wines, are produced in many different styles and make up the majority of wines on the market. Traditionally consumed as part of a meal, table wines contain between 10 and 14 percent alcohol and are further classified by their color, sugar content, and the variety and origin of the grapes that were used. Depending on the grape variety and wine-making technique, wines can be white, red, or pink in color. Most table wines are fermented until they are dry—that is, all the grape sugar has been turned to alcohol by the yeast. Slightly sweet or off-dry wines are made by stopping the fermentation before all the sugar is gone or by adding grape juice back to the wine afterwards.
Sparkling wine is made from table wine that has undergone a second fermentation. The wine maker adds a measured amount of sugar and fresh yeast to the dry wine. This can happen in a closed tank, or directly in the bottle, which is the way the most famous sparkling wine, French champagne, is produced. The yeast ferments the added sugar, but this time the carbon dioxide gas remains in the sealed bottle, creating carbonation. When the sparkling wine is poured into a glass, the gas bubbles to the surface.
Fortified wines contain additional alcohol and are usually consumed in small amounts as aperitifs before meals or dessert wines after a meal. Popular examples are port and sherry. In port wine making, which originated in Portugal, the grapes are crushed and the fermentation started but then stopped by the addition of more alcohol, which kills the yeast. The resulting wine is sweet and has an alcohol content that is 5 to 10 percent higher than table wine. Originally from Spain, sherry is made by adding alcohol to a young dry wine in an oak barrel intentionally filled only halfway. Special yeasts called flor yeast grow on the surface of the wine and create the distinct nutty flavor characteristic of sherry. About 8 million cases of fortified wines are produced in the United States each year.
(Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.)
After reading this report text, do these commands!
- Write the differences between explanation text and report text!
- Tell the communicative purpose of the two texts!
- Simplify the description of the three basic groups of wines in your sentences!
- Having the knowledge of the kinds of wines, write your opinions about them!
Look up the meaning of some underlined words in the text in your dictionary!
Read the text carefully, then do these exercises below!
Clouds are usually divided into four main families on the basis of their height above the ground: high clouds, middle clouds, low clouds, and clouds with vertical development that may extend through all levels. More than 100 different kinds of clouds are distinguishable. Only the primary families and most important genera are described below.
High Clouds (Cirrus Clouds). These are clouds composed of ice particles, found at average levels of 8 km (5 mi) or more above the earth. The family contains three principal genera. Cirrus clouds are isolated, feathery, and threadlike, often with hooks or tufts, and are arranged in bands. Cirrostratus clouds appear as a fine, whitish veil; they occasionally exhibit a fibrous structure and, when situated between the observer and the moon, produce halo phenomena. Cirrocumulus clouds form small, white, fleecy balls and wisps, arranged in groups or rows. Cirrocumulus and cirrus clouds are popularly described by the phrase “mackerel scales and mares’ tails.”
Middle Clouds (Altocumulus clouds) These are clouds composed of water droplets and ranging in altitude from about 3 to 6 km (about 2 to 4 mi) above the earth. Two principal genera are included in the family. Altostratus clouds appear as a thick, gray or bluish veil, through which the sun or moon may be seen only diffusely, as through a frosted glass. Altocumulus clouds have the appearance of dense, fleecy balls or puffs somewhat larger than cirrocumulus. The sun or moon shining through altocumulus clouds may produce a corona, or colored ring, markedly smaller in diameter than a halo.
Low Clouds (Stratocumulus Clouds) These clouds, also composed of water droplets, are generally less than 1.6 km (1 mi) high. Three principal forms comprise this group. Stratocumulus clouds consist of large rolls of clouds, soft and gray looking, which frequently cover the entire sky. Because the cloud mass is usually not very thick, blue sky often appears between breaks in the cloud deck. Nimbostratus clouds are thick, dark, and shapeless. They are precipitation clouds from which, as a rule, rain or snow falls. Stratus clouds are sheets of high fog. They appear as flat, white blankets, usually less than 610 m (2000 ft) above the ground. When they are broken up by warm, rising air, the sky beyond usually appears clear and blue.
Clouds with vertical development (Cumulonimbus Clouds) Clouds of this type range in height from less than 1.6 km (1 mi) to more than 13 km (8 mi) above the earth. Two main forms are included in this group. Cumulus clouds are dome-shaped, woolpack clouds most often seen during the middle and latter part of the day, when solar heating produces the vertical air currents necessary for their formation. These clouds usually have flat bases and rounded, cauliflower-like tops. Cumulonimbus clouds are dark, heavy-looking clouds rising like mountains high into the atmosphere, often showing an anvil-shaped veil of ice clouds, false cirrus, at the top. Popularly known as thunderheads, cumulonimbus clouds are usually accompanied by heavy, abrupt showers.
(Taken from :Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.)
- Write what the underlined pronouns in the text refer to!
- Write the special characteristics of each cloud with your own sentences! Paraphrase the sentences if necessary.
Arrange these jumbled letters into the correct words based on the clue given at the right column!
- L -T- U–I– A– E–T- D = height
- X –T –E –D –E -N = increase in size
- E-G –R –N –E -A = plural of genus
- D –I –S –T –I –N –G –U –I –S – H –A – B -L-E = can be recognized
- Y -P-R- M- I- A-R = basic
- A-E-E-R-V-A-G = typical amount
- A-P-E-P-A-R = come into view
- H-W-I-H-T-I-S = somewhat like white
- C-O-C-A-S-N-I-O-A-L-Y-L = sometime
- B-O-E-S-V-R-E-R = person watching something
- S-T-U-R-E-R-C-T-U = arrangement of particles
- O-O-M-C-P-S-E = put elements together
- F-T-O-R-S = frozen water
- P-D-R-L-E-O-T = tiny drop
- N-E-T-E-I-R = whole
- P-P-R-N-E-C-A-I-I-T-T-I-O = solid form of water caused by condensation
- E-V-R-C-T-I-L-A = upright
- F-O-N-MO-R-A-T-I = shape of something
- E-H-T-A = degree of hotness
- S-T-M-A-O-R-P-H-E-E = gas around astronomical object
Read the text well!
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features. They also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water.There are several types of glaciers such as mountain glaciers, valley glaciers, tidewater glaciers, piedmont glaciers, hanging glaciers, ice aprons and rock glaciers
Mountain glaciers develop in high mountainous regions, often flowing out of icefields that span several peaks or even a mountain range. The largest mountain glaciers are found in Arctic Canada, Alaska, the Andes in South America, and the Himalaya in Asia.
Valley Glaciers commonly originates from mountain glaciers or icefields, these glaciers spill down valleys, looking much like giant tongues. Valley glaciers may be very long, often flowing down beyond the snow line, sometimes reaching sea level.
Tidewater glaciers are valley glaciers that flow far enough to reach out into the sea. Tidewater glaciers are responsible for calving numerous small icebergs, which although not as imposing as Antarctic icebergs, can still pose problems for shipping lanes.
Piedmont glaciers occur when steep valley glaciers spill into relatively flat plains, where they spread out into bulb-like lobes. Malaspina Glacier in Alaska is one of the most famous examples of this type of glacier, and is the largest piedmont glacier in the world. Spilling out of the Seward Icefield, Malaspina Glacier covers about 3,900 square kilometers (1,500 square miles) as it spreads across the coastal plain.
When a major valley glacier system retreats and thins, sometimes the tributary glaciers are left in smaller valleys high above the shrunken central glacier surface. These are called hanging glaciers. If the entire system has melted and disappeared, the empty high valleys are called hanging valleys.
Ice Aprons are small, steep glaciers that cling to high mountainsides. Like cirque glaciers, they are often wider than they are long. Ice aprons are common in the Alps and in New Zealand, where they often cause avalanches due to the steep inclines they occupy.
Rock glaciers sometimes form when slow-moving glacial ice is covered by debris. They are often found in steep-sided valleys, where rocks and soil fall from the valley walls onto the ice. Rock glaciers may also form when frozen ground creeps downslope.
(taken : Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation.)
Make a table to differentiate the characters of each glacier!
From the text above, choose the word which best defines the underlined and italic one!
- Persistent = existing for a long time; B. continuing without change
- Deform = to spoil the looks; B. to alter the shape
- Induce = to produce by induction; B. to cause the formation of
- Substrate = a layer beneath the surface soil; B. the base on which an organism lives
- Span = to continue throughout; B. to cover
- Calve = to give birth to calf; B. to release a mass of ice that breaks away
- Retreat = fall back from a previous position; B. move back away from danger
- avalanche = a sudden overwhelming quantity; B. downhill fall of snow
- Coastal = of the land next to the sea; B. of slope for sledding
- Exceed = go beyond limits; B. to be greater than something
- Abrade = wear away by friction; B. washed away