1.1.         Form of “TO BE”

V1 V2 V3 V1– ing Present
be was / were been being is/am are

1.2.            The verb “be” is followed by :

1.2.1.        Adjective

e.g.           – The problem is difficult            – The people were angry.

– Those students are clever.     – The party was amazing.

difficult, angry, clever and amazing are adjective.

*                The function of  adjective is to describe a noun.

Some positions of  adjective are :                 in noun phrase

e.g.                        –  a  smart  boy   (=  a boy who is smart)

– an easy  question (= a question which is easy) in a sentence after to be or linking verbs

such as : appear, become, get, go, grow, look, run, seem, smell, sound, turn, etc.

    (* the adjective after to be or linking verbs functions as complement of to be)

e.g.        –  This boy is creative

–  That  cake looks delicious

–  The audience was impatient to see their favorite actor.

1.2.2     Noun

e.g.       – They are new workers.

– He was my headmaster

– English will be our main subject in this school.

new workers, my headmaster and our main subject are Noun (phrases)

1.2.3.    Adverb (of place)

e.g.       – Our headmaster is in his office.

– They have been inside the church.

in his office and inside the church are Adverb of place.

1.3.         The verb “be” can be followed by :

1.3.1.     age          :   – She is fifteen.

1.3.2.     size or weight    :- The tree is 1.25 m high.

– This baggage is 10 kilograms.

1.3.3.     price          :          – This picture is two million dollars.


1.4.         The examples of “to be” in different tenses :

1.4.1.     Present                :               – All of them are our important guests.

1.4.2.     Past                       :               – All of them were our important guests.

1.4.3.     Present Future      :         – All of them will be our important guests.

1.4.4.     Present Perfect     :         -All of them have been our important guests.

  1. The verb “TO HAVE”

2.1.       Form :

V1 V2 V3 V1– ing V1 (s/es)
have had had having has

2. 2.          The basic meaning of “ to have” is to posses.

  1. e.g. – Mr. Andi has a wonderful villa here.

– Mr. Andi doesn’t have a wonderful villa here.

– Does Mr. Andi have a wonderful villa here ?

Yes, he does / No, he doesn’t

2.3.        The examples of “to have” in different tenses :

2.3.1.     Present Simple           :- We have the answers.

2.3.2. Past Simple :- We had the answers.

2.3.3. Simple Present Future :- We  will have the answers.

2.3.4. Simple Present Perfect :- We have had the answers.

2.3.5. Simple Present Future Perfect:- We will have had the answers.

2.3.6. Simple Past Perfect :-We had had the answers.

2.4. “To have” can be used to mean :

2.4.1. to take (a meal / food or drink / a bath / a lesson, etc.)

e.g. – Our family always has breakfast.

– We need to have a computer course.

2.4.2. to give / to hold ( a party)

e.g. – Shall we have a welcome party for them ?

– The club will be having a garden party here next Sunday

2.4.3. to face / to encounter

e.g. – I don’t have any difficulties with the test.

– She had a difficult problem with her right hand.

2.4.4. to spend / to experience

e.g. – All of us will have a nice holiday.

– He had a lovely evening with his children.



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