CHAPTER ONE TO BE and TO HAVE AS ORDINARY VERB
1.1. Form of “TO BE”
|be||was / were||been||being||is/am are|
1.2. The verb “be” is followed by :
e.g. – The problem is difficult – The people were angry.
– Those students are clever. – The party was amazing.
difficult, angry, clever and amazing are adjective.
* The function of adjective is to describe a noun.
Some positions of adjective are :
22.214.171.124. in noun phrase
e.g. – a smart boy (= a boy who is smart)
– an easy question (= a question which is easy)
126.96.36.199. in a sentence after to be or linking verbs
such as : appear, become, get, go, grow, look, run, seem, smell, sound, turn, etc.
(* the adjective after to be or linking verbs functions as complement of to be)
e.g. – This boy is creative
– That cake looks delicious
– The audience was impatient to see their favorite actor.
e.g. – They are new workers.
– He was my headmaster
– English will be our main subject in this school.
new workers, my headmaster and our main subject are Noun (phrases)
1.2.3. Adverb (of place)
e.g. – Our headmaster is in his office.
– They have been inside the church.
in his office and inside the church are Adverb of place.
1.3. The verb “be” can be followed by :
1.3.1. age : – She is fifteen.
1.3.2. size or weight :- The tree is 1.25 m high.
– This baggage is 10 kilograms.
1.3.3. price : – This picture is two million dollars.
1.4. The examples of “to be” in different tenses :
1.4.1. Present : – All of them are our important guests.
1.4.2. Past : – All of them were our important guests.
1.4.3. Present Future : – All of them will be our important guests.
1.4.4. Present Perfect : -All of them have been our important guests.
- The verb “TO HAVE”
2.1. Form :
|V1||V2||V3||V1– ing||V1 (s/es)|
2. 2. The basic meaning of “ to have” is to posses.
- e.g. – Mr. Andi has a wonderful villa here.
– Mr. Andi doesn’t have a wonderful villa here.
– Does Mr. Andi have a wonderful villa here ?
Yes, he does / No, he doesn’t
2.3. The examples of “to have” in different tenses :
2.3.1. Present Simple :- We have the answers.
2.3.2. Past Simple :- We had the answers.
2.3.3. Simple Present Future :- We will have the answers.
2.3.4. Simple Present Perfect :- We have had the answers.
2.3.5. Simple Present Future Perfect:- We will have had the answers.
2.3.6. Simple Past Perfect :-We had had the answers.
2.4. “To have” can be used to mean :
2.4.1. to take (a meal / food or drink / a bath / a lesson, etc.)
e.g. – Our family always has breakfast.
– We need to have a computer course.
2.4.2. to give / to hold ( a party)
e.g. – Shall we have a welcome party for them ?
– The club will be having a garden party here next Sunday
2.4.3. to face / to encounter
e.g. – I don’t have any difficulties with the test.
– She had a difficult problem with her right hand.
2.4.4. to spend / to experience
e.g. – All of us will have a nice holiday.
– He had a lovely evening with his children.