BSE : 3.7/4.7/6/7.3

Basic Competence

3.7 menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait konsesi, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan even though, although)

4.7 menyusun teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait konsesi, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will review on Adverbial Clauses, especially Adverbial clause of Concession. Surely, you will have to know their proper grammatical structure. Practicing writing sentences is needed to enhance your understanding on the social function of each Adverbial Clause.

  • Learning process


Read the sentences well, then tell what each sentence expresses!

  1. Since the nomination is going to be announced, the committee is having the last check on the nominees.
  2. After we had transferred sum of money, we were told that it was fraud.
  3. Everyone is moving forward in order that they can see what is happening clearly.
  4. She has been standing still there for almost an hour as if she were a mannequin.
  5. Even though his father is the owner of this big company, he is still not promoted to the higher position.
  6. Even if I got fired, I wouldn’t be afraid to tell the truth.
  7. If you fail, never blame someone else for the failure.
  8. That was such a huge explosion that there were about a hundred people got injured and killed.
  9. My  dad dresses up tidily whereever he goes.
  10. He is going much further on this experiment than I did last month.


You have learnt about Adverbial Clauses, so to refresh it click on:

And read the Adverbial Clauses.

The followings are the exercises to enhance your understanding about Adverbial Clauses.


Here are simple sentences! Develop each sentence into Complex Ones by using different Adverbial Conjunctions. You may have the sentence as the sub clause.

e.g. The teenagers look disappointed.

      a. The teenagers look disappointed.because they are not allowed to meet their idol.

      b. The teenagers look disappointed.although the committee have the reason for the cancelled fan meeting

  1. I don’t understand the instructions.
  2. These days are quite scorching.
  3. Some parents like to dictate teachers how to teach their children.
  4. Our family had a wonderful time together.
  5. The film wasn’t interesting.
  6. My flight was delayed.
  7. The two opposite leaders agree to Pancasila as the required subject at schools.
  8. Communication technology has been widely used for business.
  9. Every one was excited to shake hand with the President.
  10. The idea of having a small house is for reducing the energy consumption.


Find the incorrect word in each sentence, and correct the sentence!

  1. The competition among big countries in producing high technology on telecommunication becomes the most intense than that on food production is.
  2. There will be more challenges for the educators to motivate students to learn for their business with their gadgets.
  3. Children need to be trained on having soft skills that they will be able to achieve not only cognitive development but also psychomotor and affective one.
  4. Since young people are becoming more and more digitally literate, there are still many not having competence on comprehending a text or article.
  5. A lot of people still ignore the cleanliness of their environment as if they don’t know the alarming condition of the earth.
  6. Even if the young people don’t know how to collaborate, the world will never both reach the harmony and become the peaceful place to live due to the high competition causing the dispute among countries.
  7. Creatures have experienced the harsh weather since human begins consuming fossil fuel abundantly end exploiting the nature greedily.
  8. Living with villagers was so an amazing experience for our students that they become aware of appreciating others’ life and nature.
  9. We are going to hold culture parade here the people can access the transportation easily.
  10. Though there have been notices to keep the cleanliness around the park, visitors still won’t leave their trash everywhere when leaving the park.
  11. The police won’t stop investigating if they find who controlled the riot.
  12. The curriculum of schools won’t adapt the society demands unless they have what they want to focus on.
  13. Making an event viral is such easy that this is used by the irresponsible people to spread the negative things or hoaxes.
  14. Culture is able to unite any difference found in the society as if the glue does.
  15.   Before the President signs the agreement, some private companies had met him twice.
  16. After companies use Artificial Intelligence in their activities, human resources should be more focused on how to manage the system.


In this activity, you will practice applying the adverbial clauses on a short composition.

Watch this video,

Based on the video, make a composition containing two or three paragraphs by using adverbial clauses!


In this activity, try to understand the different meaning of although, even though, though, even if, in spite of (the fact) that, and despite (the fact) that by paraphrasing the sentences below by omitting the conjunction!

  1. Even though they have been familiar with this activity, they cannot complete the tasks well.
  2. Although everyone has the copy of the material, they are still confused on the grasping the explanation.
  3. Even if the leader had a good leadership, this organization wouldn’t run well due to the inefficient system.
  4. The children playing with their gadget won’t listen to you even if you shout at them.
  5. He has ability to hypnotize people, but despite that he doesn’t do that for his own sake.
  6. In spite of the fact that you are the winner, you won’t automatically represent our school for the following contest.
  7. You should believe that you can achieve what you dream though you have some weaknesses.
  8. Despite the fact that she is still young, the President chooses her as one of the ministers.
  9. Although your sentences are grammatically correct, they are meaningless.
  10. Even if he was threatened to be killed many times, he wouldn’t stop investigating this case.
  11. Our proposal isn’t perfect, but in spite of that the leader chooses it for the next project.
  12. He will get his internship for six months in this company even though he is the son of the owner.
  13. The judge won’t legalize your business even if you bribe him.
  14. Though this school has been facilitated completely, the students won’t get good education without teachers’ high integrity.
  15. The vocabularies are commonly used in daily conversation. Some of the students don’t know their meaning, though.



  1. Write the grammatical structure of Adverbial Clause.
  2. Mention kinds of Adverbial Clauses.
  3. Tell the social function of each Averbial Clause.
  4. Infer the slight difference of some conjunctions in adverbial clause of concession.



No Questions Yes No
1. Can you recognize the sentences with Adverbial Clauses?    
2. Do you know the social function of the Adverbial Clauses?    
3. Can apply the Adverbial Clauses in your composition?    
4 Can you differentiate the slight difference of though, although, even though and even if?    

Chapter 6: Discussion text

BSE : 3.6/4.6/6/6.3

Basic Competence

3.6 membedakan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan beberapa teks pembahasan ilmiah (discussion) lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait pembahasan isu kontrovesial dan aktual dari beberapa (minimal dua) sudut pandang, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya

4.6 teks pembahasan ilmiah (discussion)

4.6.1 menangkap makna secara kontekstual terkait fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks pembahasan ilmiah (discussion) lisan dan tulis, terkait isu kontroversial dan aktual

4.6.2 menyusun pembahasan ilmiah (discussion) lisan dan tulis, terkait isu kontroversial dan aktual, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan, secara benar dan sesuai konteks

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will learn about Discussion text. Surely, you will have to know its proper generic structure. Practicing writing sentences is needed to enhance your understanding on its social function.

  • Learning process

GENERAL INSTRUCTION : You must ensure that you understand the material step by step. At the end, there will be an evaluation to test your level of understanding on the material. When your level is above the passing score, you may continue to the next material. Before you ask for the evaluation, please ensure yourself that you have already mastered the whole material in this chapter.


Which shows two points of view?

  1. School is a place for students to learn living in a small society. However, the education system doesn’t make students enjoy learning there.
  2. Some young people choose to be a teacher due to the good salary. Consequently, their focus is not educating.
  3. Women have begun to be a leader in some institutions, companies and government. On the other hand, their high position which demands their time brings a bad impact on their family.
  4. Our president wants to build many infrastructures without burdening our country’s finance. Based on this, he invites foreign private investors to manage them.
  5. The digital technology eases business to grow so fast that most of companies prefer to use this technology. Conversely, the country will lose much income from their tax if there is no law on it.

To understand what discussion text is, do the following activities.


Find discussions on one topic that appear on the mass media today. Then, identify the points of view that support both sides. Compare these discussions, by answering questions below,

• What is the topic? • Is the target audience adult, teenager or child?  • What is the assumed background knowledge? • Are two sides given in each text? Find examples. • Is evidence, research data or elaboration used? Give examples.  • Is each side’s argument elaborated to the same extent ? What is the conclusion? Is an opinion expressed?  • Is the level of modality appropriate? • Is technical language used?  • Is emotive language used?  • What di fferent conclusions might have been reached?  • Do the conclusions summarise, recommend or solve an issue?  • Look at the visual texts. Do they add to the understanding of each text?

(examples of questions are taken from:


Have a group of seven and divide your group into the pro and cont. side. You will have a discussion on the topic in activity one. One person must be a moderator that controls the discussion. Based on the discussions you have analyzed, discuss them on your points of view. Make some notes during the discussion.


You should learn the Discussion text through reading comprehension too. So, click this:

And do the exercises completely.


It’s time for you to write your discussion text based on the discussion you have just had.

You can use some expressions or the language features commonly found in the discussion text.

To raise two points of view in your first paragraph you may use these:

*Everyone has different points of view to…

*There are two sides to consider.

*Advantages and disadvantages should be appraised in this discussion.

To strengthen the mode of your argument, you can use these:

Undoubtedly, Always, Absolutely, Certainly, Indeed, Obviously, Amazingly, Definitely

To make conclusion or summary of your arguments in the last paragraph, use these:

admittedly, consequently, in conclusion, it is evident that, thus, under these

circumstances, because of what was, mentioned above



  1. Tell the communicative purpose of Discussion text.
  2. Tell the generic structure of Discussion text.



No Questions Yes No
1. Can you recognize Discussion text from its generic structure?    
2. Do you understand the communicative purpose of Discussion text?    
3. Can you write a discussion text?    

Chapter 5: Imperative


Learning purpose            

In this chapter, you will review on  Imperative and Verb Phrases. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure used to make your writing better and better.  Practicing writings news is needed to enhance your understanding on their social function and text structure.


Read the following dialog!

Journalist: Please, tell me what you know about this explosion.

A man: I don’t know anything.

Journalist: We know that you are the owner of this factory.

A man: Don’t ask me about it again.

Journalist: Is there anything wrong with it?

A man: Of course not, go away or …

Journalist: You cannot avoid us for we will follow you.

A man: Go away from me and never write about this explosion if you love your career.

Do you know what are the italic sentences called?

Activity One

Imperative sentences can express request, prohibition, command, advice, invitation, or threat.

Here are some imperative sentences, identify what each sentence expresses.

  1. Behave yourself when meeting him!
  2. If you are accidentally tapped by a stranger on your back or shoulder, stay calm.
  3. Please, take care of these children warmly.
  4. Don’t show your naïve response if they investigate this office.
  5. If you have more time, come to our house for celebrating our son’s graduation.
  6. Write the instructions and learn them well.
  7. If you get a good shot, send it to me.
  8. Don’t oppose the attempt to close this sensitive case.
  9. Never try to broadcast the VIP’s affair if you love your career.
  10. Don’t blame yourself for the thing that even you don’t know.
  11. Be accurate in this investigation and don’t make any silly mistakes!
  12. Come in and enjoy our special dishes.
  13. If ten minutes aren’t enough, keep speaking!
  14. If you cannot answer my phone, call me back whenever you are free.
  15. Let me know your decision if you change your mind.
  16. Don’t turn on your mobile phone until you have completed your work.
  17. Prove that what you said is not an assumption!
  18. Prepare your story now, as we are on air in 15 minutes.
  19. Please, let me know what you got after the interview.
  20. If you don’t finish three songs, never think about having your first album.

Activity Two

Having identified each sentence in Activity One, choose ten sentences to make a dialog for each of them with four turns.

Activity Three

For practicing speaking, you may either choose one of the sentences above or have your own topic to discuss with your teacher.

Activity Four

Every sentence including the imperative one must have a verb or verb phrase. It commonly functions as predicate.

Now, analyze the sentences below by highlighting the verb phrase, and underline the main verb. When there is auxiliary in the verb phrase, tell which auxiliary it is.

e.g.   The people are crowding the new charismatic governor.  (are is the auxiliary for verb in continuous)

         He has collected so many proofs for the next trial. (has is the auxiliary for perfect tense)

  1. Some companies haven’t paid the tax for years, especially the digital technology based ones.
  2. There may have been some false statements.
  3. The majority of the members would like to invite a professional for the seminar.
  4. The president will have paid a visit to some traditional markets by the end of this month.
  5. Did you submit your work yesterday?
  6. Everyone will be able to open a bank account digitally.
  7. He had been talking for some minutes when someone interrupted him.
  8. Your sentences didn’t look argumentative enough to rebut his strong statement.
  9. Everyone must be aware of their environment.
  10. The broadcasting manager will have been on air for some minutes when the director comes.
  11. This reporter is the best.
  12. We don’t want to disturb your work, but we have to.
  13. The President is going to recall the head of executive departments.
  14. The education system nowadays burdens the students.
  15. Many customers complained on this menu.

Now, do the following exercise to make you more understand on the verb phrases.

Fill in the blank with the correct verb phrase which must be meaningful contextually.

  1. The one with a lot of money commonly … on the authority’s decision.
  2. It … difficult for the good people to uncover the truth.
  3. He … hurt when finally knows how his mother runs her business.
  4. … you … that your presentation will be good enough to convince the manager?
  5. I … in this difficult position since I was moved in this department.
  6. The students … this popular movie before I asked them to.
  7. All of the eye witnesses … the truth despite their oath in the last trial.
  8. This country … its best young people if they are addictive by the online games.
  9. When communication technology wasn’t as developed as today’s, Parents… any difficulty to educate their children.
  10. Based on his advice, we … honest to ourselves and … the deep of our heart when deciding something difficult.
  11. The CEO … a press conference relating to this matter at the same time tomorrow.
  12. If you hadn’t given her a chance, she … able to show her high competence.
  13. … try to hide the truth from me. I … it sooner or later.
  14. … the police … some roads dealing to the President’s arrival to this city next Monday?
  15. Animal lovers … their protest on the opening forest for plantation for almost three hours.


  1. Give five examples of imperative sentences.
  2. Make five sentences with different verb phrase.

This following table is to check whether you have understood the materials!


No Questions Yes No
1. Can you recognize the social function and the structure of imperative sentences?    
2. Can you differentiate one verb phrase from another?    

Chapter 5: Conjunctions of Contrast

BSE : 3.5/4.5/5/3.3

Conjunctions of Contrast

Basic Competence

3.5 menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait hubungan pertentangan dan kebalikan, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan even if …, unless …, however, on the other hand, in conbtrast, nevertheless)

4.5. menyusun teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait hubungan pertentangan dan kebalikan, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will learn Conjunctions of Contrast. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure used to write meaningful sentences concerning  Conjunctions of Contrast. Practicing writing sentences is needed to enhance your understanding on their social function and grammatical structure.

Learning process

 GENERAL INSTRUCTION : You must ensure that you understand the material step by step. At the end, there will be an evaluation to test your level of understanding on the material. When your level is above the passing score, you may continue to the next material. Before you ask for the evaluation, please ensure yourself that you have already mastered the whole material in this chapter.


Analyze the following sentences:

  1. This teenager never gives up trying to get his driving license although he has failed some times.
  2. Some people tirelessly create hoaxes in spite of the law on making fake information.
  3. Journalists aren’t allowed to tell or write anything that is not true. However, few irresponsible ones only report what is seen without verifying its truth.
  4. The decoration for this party looks simple, but wonderful.
  5. The two witnesses told the chronology clearly during the trial. On the contrary, they answered all the journalists’ questions doubtfully during the press conference.
  6. The director won’t promote Mr. Yung, in spite of that he has shown his good work to him.
  7. You won’t be able to change the leader’s decision even if you persuade his secretary to ask for it.
  8. The junior told me that he hadn’t had enough information to be reported, yet had the details of the murder.

Now, to help you analyze those sentences, choose the correct answer according to your opinion.

  1. Those sentences express … (a. condition  b. reason.    C. contrast    d. alternative)
  2. The function of “although and even if” in number 1 and 7 is as … (a. preposition    b. subordinating conjunctions     c. coordinating conjunctions     d. transitional adverb)
  3. What follows “in spite of” in number 2? (a. noun     b. sentence.    c. adjective     d. adverb)
  4. Compared to number 6, “in spite of that” is followed by … (a. noun sentence.    c. adjective     d. adverb)
  5. Based on number 4 and 8, “but and yet” function as … ((a. preposition b. subordinating conjunctions     c. coordinating conjunctions     d. transitional adverb)
  6. The transitional adverbs such as in number 3 and 5 is used to … (a. join the main clause and its sub clause    b. join two independence ideas     c. join two phrases      d. to create phrase)



Learn this table, then complete the sentences below!

Preposition in spite of, despite, for all
Coordinating conjunctions but, yet
Subordinating conjunctions although, though, even though, even if, while, whereas, in contrast, even so, in spite of that, despite that, for all that,
Transitional adverbs / conjunctive adverbs However, nevertheless, still, on the contrary, on the other hand, conversely, on the other side, nonetheless
  • Nevertheless, nonetheless, still, and even so can be used with but
  1. This young woman decides to leave the comfortable life for all
  2. Even though …., she is the kindest boss.
  3. She continued dancing despite
  4. Everyone is busy making notes on the speech, whereas
  5. He still loves her, but
  6. The traces of the murder lead to the director. However, ….
  7. He will take a revenge for his parents’ death, in spite of that
  8. Some educational psychologists have recommended to schools to reduce the subjects to be learnt, though
  9. The students are discussing their new regulations, while
  10. We don’t know exactly what happened yesterday, although ….
  11. All the party’s members agree to reconcile. Conversely, …
  12. The effect of the polluted air to the gene mutation has been proven, yet
  13. He is trying hard to prove that he is innocent, even if
  14. He is attempting to avoid paying tax in spite of
  15. Some countries are struggling to increase their export to get more national income. On the other side, …
  16. Carrier women spend much of their time for their work, but nevertheless
  17. This drama focuses on how a journalist may destroy someone’s life. Still, …
  18. The director admits that he doesn’t know anything about the case, in contrast
  19. What happened years ago may be forgotten, but even so
  20. The selection of girls for some beauty contests is often considered to ignore the moral values in this country. On the other hand, …


Here are ten topics. Develop each topic to be a paragraph containing about five to ten sentences. In your paragraph, you must include a sentence or more expressing contrast.

  1. Young people prefer to use their gadget to solve their problems.
  2. The preference of people in this country is more on gossips than the true information.
  3. People, nowadays, are trying to avoid their consumption on energy by having a small house.
  4. The system of education in some countries causes a lot of students stressful.
  5. The aim of uploading photos on Instagram is frequently to get people’s like as many as possible.
  6. Reducing the body weight must be done intensively.
  7. Political education shouldn’t be taught in the elementary school.
  8. Some journalists report what people like to see and hear by ignoring telling the truth.
  9. Parents often make an excuse for neglecting their children due to their business.
  10. University students have lost their critical thinking on what they protest.



To practice speaking on this material, see this video:

Tell what you think about it in three minutes talking.



  1. mention the grammatical structure of some contrast conjunctions.
  2. mention their social function.




No Questions Yes No
1. Can you recognize kinds of contrast conjunctions?
2. Do you understand the social function of contrast conjunctions?
3. Can you apply them in sentences?



Chapter 4: If-Conditional Clauses

BSE : 3.4/4.4/5/3.3

If Conditional Clauses, Subjunctives, and Report Text

Basic Competence

3.4 menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait pengandaian terjadinya/dilakukannya sesuatu yang tidak nyata pada saat ini dan pada waktu lampau, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan conditional: past dan past perfect)

4.4 menyusun teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait pengandaian terjadinya/dilakukannya sesuatu yang tidak nyata pada saat ini dan pada waktu lampau, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks    

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will review on If Conditional Clauses, Subjunctives and Report Text. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure used to write meaningful sentences concerning  If Conditional Clauses, and Subjunctives. Practicing writing sentences and reading comprehension on Report text is needed to enhance your understanding on the social function and grammatical structure.

Learning process

 GENERAL INSTRUCTION : You must ensure that you understand the material step by step. At the end, there will be an evaluation to test your level of understanding on the material. When your level is above the passing score, you may continue to the next material. Before you ask for the evaluation, please ensure yourself that you have already mastered the whole material in this chapter.



Answer the questions below!

  1. What would you say if you were meeting Mr. President?
  2. Where would you spend your leisure time if you were in holiday now?
  3. What will you do if you get the position of a manager?
  4. Whom would you have chosen to dance if you had the chance?
  5. How may she have responded if you had shown up at her party?

Do you remember why the five numbers use different tenses?

To refresh your knowledge about it, click on:


Activity One

Now, to get practices on it do these exercises below!

A. Here are some dialogs. Explain what the second person means.

  1. Teacher A: The result of Michael’s exam is perfect.

Teacher B: Surprising. If I had had known that he is clever, I would have chosen him for the national research competition last month.

  1. Alia: It’s difficult to contact him.

Bagus: Yes, I am worried about his condition. If we had trails to trace him, it would be easy to find him.

  1. Calista: She surrendered to her sickness and has just been gone.

Dimm: She would have survived if she had had someone supporting her during her sickness.

  1. Engie: There were 9 civilians killed during the people’s demonstration last week.

Frea: If they had obeyed the police’s order to keep the demonstration peaceful, there wouldn’t have been any victims.

  1. Gratia: The temperature can reach less than 15 degrees these days.

Heditto: If it were not bitterly cold, we would spend our holiday at the mountain as we had planned.

  1. Indra: Hei … you look much thinner.

Jane: Yes, I wouldn’t get this satisfying result if I hadn’t had discipline.

  1. Karen: The global economy is uncertain.

Lily: If the big countries collaborate to have the steady market, the world economy would be conducive for any country in the world.

  1. Max: No one seems to be interested in joining the quiz.

Nathan: If we offer more for the prize, they may be attracted to.

  1. Ory: Are you sure that Jakarta is your choice?

Putri: I am not sure, but I wish the pollution were not too dangerous for my asthma.

  1. Quint: So, how about your reunion last Saturday?

Randy: I wished I had never been there.

  1. Sein: It’s quite annoying to see garbage everywhere.

Tristan: I wish everyone were responsible to the cleanliness of this place.

  1. Ulin: His speech is sickening. It is full of lies.

Vena: I agree. I would rather someone stopped him now.

  1. Wina: The games are bad influence to the children’s mental development.

Xeen: I wish many parents realized about it.

  1. Risang: Didn’t you get some good shots on that event?

Obri: I wished I had had enough memory for my camera.

  1. Melisa: The crash was so terrible that it will stay longer in my memory.

Rima: I would rather I hadn’t seen about it.


B. Give two or more proper main clauses for the provided If Conditional clauses!

  1. If the President chose me as one of the ministers, …
  2. If the people hadn’t been easily provoked by hoaxes, …
  3. If the police hadn’t been able to catch the terrorists, …
  4. If China and USA collaborated in creating a conducive market globally, …
  5. If all countries realized that the earth is beginning to collapse, …
  6. If young people were aware of the importance of literacy, …
  7. If Soekarno hadn’t proclaimed our independence, …
  8. It there hadn’t been industrial revolution on mass production, …
  9. If we hadn’t been colonized for almost 300 years, …
  10. If the government didn’t invite the foreign investors, …

Activity Two

For the following activity, see this video:

Then, with your own sentences, re-explain the types of coffee.

Activity Three

Read this following article.

Types of Coffee Makers

Published June 21, 2016

There are many ways to produce a flavorful, well-balanced cup of coffee or espresso at home. Here are some of the favorite types of coffee makers.

The Basics of Making Coffee

Coffee is a complex bean, containing more than 1,000 volatile flavor and aroma compounds. According to experts, the best compounds are released when brewed at temperatures between 195 and 205 degrees. Then there’s the matter of the rate of extraction. The most aromatic and best tasting compounds are generally released first, so coffee that’s brewed too slowly or at too-hot temperatures can suffer from over-extraction when the harsher and more bitter flavors are released. If brewed too quickly or with water that isn’t hot enough, it can suffer from under-extraction where it’s weak and sour-tasting. An optimum extraction rate is about 6 to 8 minutes, depending on the method. (Cold-brew methods, in which ground coffee is combined with cold or room-temperature water, take longer—at least 8 hours and up to several days.)

Automatic Coffee Makers

You can start with the best beans and the best coffee maker, but those choices won’t matter if you don’t also use the right ratio of coffee to water (several of the models we tested call for insufficient coffee—or, even worse, simply have baskets too small to hold enough ground coffee for the amount of water its tank can hold). For the ideal cup, the Specialty Coffee Association of America recommends 9 to 11 grams (about 2 tablespoons of medium-grind coffee) per 6 ounces of water.

Many coffee drinkers will be pleased with the excellent performance of the Bonavita, but if you want to invest in the best machine money can buy, the Technivorm might be for you.

  • Brewing Performance: The Technivorm is robotic, reaching the same optimal time and temperature numbers every single time you brew a pot. The Bonavita wavers in and out of the ideal temperature zone a bit more.
  • Heating Element: Though its exterior parts are made from inexpensive lightweight plastic (meant to be replaceable), the Technivorm’s nervous system is built to last. Specifically, its heating element is made of expensive, highly conductive copper—a metal that can reach a higher temperature more quickly than can aluminum, which is what Bonavita (and most other coffee maker manufacturers) uses.
  • Saturation of Grounds: The new Technivorm KBGT and the older Technivorm KBT each have a hold-back function that slows or stops the flow of coffee into the carafe, steeping the grounds longer. (On the old model, this function is manually controlled; on the new model, it automatically waits about 30 seconds.) The Bonavita does not have this function, though it’s equipped with a showerhead that helps saturate the grounds evenly.
  • Carafe Lid: The Technivorm’s carafe features a convenient brew-through lid; the Bonavita requires you to remove the brew basket and screw on a separate lid to keep coffee hot.
  • Construction: The Technivorm is hand-built in the Netherlands. The Bonavita is machine-built in China from a German design.
  • Length of Warranty: Technivorm: five years; Bonavita: two years.


Cold Brew Coffee Makers

Caffeine nerds have long touted the advantages of brewing coffee with cold water. The process, which calls for steeping ground coffee in cold water for several hours (or overnight), is largely hands-off; produces a smoother, less acidic brew than does conventional hot-water extraction; and yields a strong concentrate that can be stored in the refrigerator and diluted to taste with hot or cold water (or poured over ice) to make instant hot or iced coffee.

With just a few large plastic parts, a stable, widemouthed glass carafe with an easy-to-seal lid, and straightforward instructions, this classic brewer was simple to use and clean up and yielded a generous amount of “rich,” “chocolaty,” “full-flavored” concentrate that still tasted good after two weeks in the refrigerator.

Espresso Machines

Espresso machines range in price from well under $100 for basic machines to elaborate, glossy marvels that can set you back as much as $8,000—it can be a confusing process to find the best one for your investment. First and foremost, an espresso machine should make espresso as good as a barista can produce, and you should be able to customize the brew strength and size to your taste. Second, the machine must be easy to use and relatively straightforward to maintain. Brewing a drink or two should not make much of a mess, take too long, or require a discouraging amount of fuss for a busy weekday morning.

Fully Automatic Espresso Machine

This compact, well-made machine consistently produced excellent espresso at the push of a button and readily let us adjust the flavor, temperature, and strength of a shot. The thoughtfully designed controls and a clear display that showed what was happening made it simple to brew espresso or froth milk without consulting the manual.

Hands-On Espresso Machine

This handsome machine is perfect if you want the convenience of built-in grinding and automatic weighing of coffee, as well as push-button brewing, but you don’t mind some hands-on work. You must learn to tamp properly and move the porta filter of grounds from the grinder to the brewing position. A simple gauge provides excellent feedback, quickly teaching you to dial in the best grind setting and tamping pressure.

(taken from:

Tell in one sentence what you can conclude about:

  1. The content of coffee
  2. Brewing coffee
  3. The ratio of coffee to water
  4. The Technivorm product
  5. Iced coffee
  6. The use of espresso machine
  7. The advantage of fully automatic Espresso machine



Guess the word through its meaning!

  1. S_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _n     = The degree or extent to which something is dissolved or absorbed compared with the maximum possible, usually expressed as a percentage
  2. W_ _ _ _ _ _y     = A written guarantee, issued to the purchaser of an article by its manufacturer, promising to repair or replace it if necessary within a specified period of time.
  3. D_ _ _ _e     = Make (a liquid) thinner or weaker by adding water or another solvent to it
  4. R_ _ _ _ _ _ _d     = Put forward (someone or something) with approval as being suitable for a particular purpose or role.
  5. E_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _n     = The action of extracting something, especially using effort or force.
  6. C_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _e      = A thing that contributes to an easy and effortless way of life.
  7. G_ _ _e      = An instrument that measures and gives a visual display of the amount, level, or contents of something.
  8. C_ _ _ _ _ _ _e      = Modify (something) to suit a particular individual or task.
  9. E_ _ _ _ _ _ _e      = Develop or present (a theory, policy, or system) in further detail
  10. C_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _e      = Having the property of conducting something (especially heat or electricity)
  11. L_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _t      = Of thin material or build and weighing less than average
  12. V_ _ _ _ _ _e      = (of a substance) easily evaporated at normal temperatures
  13. A_ _ _ _ _ _c      = Having a pleasant and distinctive smell
  14. I_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _t      = Not enough; inadequate.
  15. A_ _ _ _c     = Sharp-tasting or sour
  16. G_ _ _ _ _ _s      = (of a thing) larger or more plentiful than is usual or necessary.
  17. C_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _e      = A substance made by removing or reducing the diluting agent; a concentrated form of something.
  18. C_ _ _ _ _t      = Having all the necessary components or features neatly fitted into a small space.
  19. F_ _ _ _ _ _k      = Information about reactions to a product, a person’s performance of a task, etc. which is used as a basis for improvement.
  20. F_ _ _h      = Impure matter that rises to the surface of liquid.






  1. mention the types of If-Conditional clauses with their function and structure
  2. mention the types of Subjunctives with their function and structure
  3. mention the social function and generic structure of Report texts



No Questions Yes No
1. Can you recognize types of If-Conditional Clause?
2. Can you identify Subjunctives?
3. Can you identify a Report text?



Report Texts


  Text One

 Communicative Purpose:

to present information about something, as it is.

 Generic Structure

  1. General classification
  2. Description

Read the text well, then do the task below!

Psychologists have different theories about how information enters long-term memory. The traditional view is that that information enters short-term memory and, depending on how it is processed, may then transfer to long-term memory. However, another view is that short-term memory and long-term memory are arranged in a parallel rather than sequential fashion. That is, information may be registered simultaneously in the two systems.

There seems to be no finite capacity to long-term memory. People can learn and retain new facts and skills throughout their lives. Although older adults may show a decline in certain capacities—for example, recalling recent events—they can still profit from experience even in old age. For example, vocabulary increases over the entire life span. The brain remains plastic and capable of new learning throughout one’s lifetime, at least under normal conditions. Certain neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, can greatly diminish the capacity for new learning.

Psychologists once thought of long-term memory as a single system. Today, most researchers distinguish three long-term memory systems: episodic memory, semantic memory, and procedural memory.

Episodic memory refers to memories of specific episodes in one’s life and is what most people think of as memory. Episodic memories are connected with a specific time and place. If you were asked to recount everything you did yesterday, you would rely on episodic memory to recall the events. Similarly, you would draw on episodic memory to describe a family vacation, the way you felt when you won an award, or the circumstances of a childhood accident. Episodic memory contains the personal, autobiographical details of our lives.

Semantic memory refers to our general knowledge of the world and all of the facts we know. Semantic memory allows a person to know that the chemical symbol for salt is NaCl, that dogs have four legs, that Thomas Jefferson was president of the United States, that 3 × 3 equals 9, and thousands of other facts. Semantic memories are not tied to the particular time and place of learning. For example, in order to remember that Thomas Jefferson was president, people do not have to recall the time and place that they first learned this fact. The knowledge transcends the original context in which it was learned. In this respect, semantic memory differs from episodic memory, which is closely related to time and place. Semantic memory also seems to have a different neural basis than episodic memory. Brain-damaged patients who have great difficulties remembering their own recent personal experiences often can access their permanent knowledge quite readily. Thus, episodic memory and semantic memory seem to represent independent capacities.

Procedural memory refers to the skills that humans possess. Tying shoelaces, riding a bicycle, swimming, and hitting a baseball are examples of procedural memory. Procedural memory is often contrasted with episodic and semantic memory. Episodic and semantic memory are both classified as types of declarative memory because people can consciously recall facts, events, and experiences and then verbally declare or describe their recollections. In contrast, nondeclarative, or procedural, memory is expressed through performance and typically does not require a conscious effort to recall.

(Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.) 

  1. Why can people learn throughout their lives?
  2. Write the main difference among the three memories!
  3. Give two examples for each memory in a long term memory system!
  4. What proves that episodic memory and semantic memory represent independent capabilities?
  5. What differs the declarative memory and nondeclarative one?


Text Two

Read the text carefully!

Wines are categorized using a number of different methods. Sometimes they are grouped into different categories by grape variety, region of origin, by color, by the name of the wine maker or viticulturalist, or by production technique. Three basic groups of wines are most easily distinguishable for the consumer: table wines, sparkling wines, and fortified wines.

Table wines, also known as still or natural wines, are produced in many different styles and make up the majority of wines on the market. Traditionally consumed as part of a meal, table wines contain between 10 and 14 percent alcohol and are further classified by their color, sugar content, and the variety and origin of the grapes that were used. Depending on the grape variety and wine-making technique, wines can be white, red, or pink in color. Most table wines are fermented until they are dry—that is, all the grape sugar has been turned to alcohol by the yeast. Slightly sweet or off-dry wines are made by stopping the fermentation before all the sugar is gone or by adding grape juice back to the wine afterwards.

Sparkling wine is made from table wine that has undergone a second fermentation. The wine maker adds a measured amount of sugar and fresh yeast to the dry wine. This can happen in a closed tank, or directly in the bottle, which is the way the most famous sparkling wine, French champagne, is produced. The yeast ferments the added sugar, but this time the carbon dioxide gas remains in the sealed bottle, creating carbonation. When the sparkling wine is poured into a glass, the gas bubbles to the surface.

Fortified wines contain additional alcohol and are usually consumed in small amounts as aperitifs before meals or dessert wines after a meal. Popular examples are port and sherry. In port wine making, which originated in Portugal, the grapes are crushed and the fermentation started but then stopped by the addition of more alcohol, which kills the yeast. The resulting wine is sweet and has an alcohol content that is 5 to 10 percent higher than table wine. Originally from Spain, sherry is made by adding alcohol to a young dry wine in an oak barrel intentionally filled only halfway. Special yeasts called flor yeast grow on the surface of the wine and create the distinct nutty flavor characteristic of sherry. About 8 million cases of fortified wines are produced in the United States each year.

(Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.)

After reading this report text, do these commands!

  1. Write the differences between explanation text and report text!
  2. Tell the communicative purpose of the two texts!
  3. Simplify the description of the three basic groups of wines in your sentences!
  4. Having the knowledge of the kinds of wines, write your opinions about them!


Look up the meaning of some underlined words in the text in your dictionary!


Text Three

Read the text carefully, then do these exercises below!

Clouds are usually divided into four main families on the basis of their height above the ground: high clouds, middle clouds, low clouds, and clouds with vertical development that may extend through all levels. More than 100 different kinds of clouds are distinguishable. Only the primary families and most important genera are described below.

High Clouds (Cirrus Clouds). These are clouds composed of ice particles, found at average levels of 8 km (5 mi) or more above the earth. The family contains three principal genera. Cirrus clouds are isolated, feathery, and threadlike, often with hooks or tufts, and are arranged in bands. Cirrostratus clouds appear as a fine, whitish veil; they occasionally exhibit a fibrous structure and, when situated between the observer and the moon, produce halo phenomena. Cirrocumulus clouds form small, white, fleecy balls and wisps, arranged in groups or rows. Cirrocumulus and cirrus clouds are popularly described by the phrase “mackerel scales and mares’ tails.”

Middle Clouds (Altocumulus clouds) These are clouds composed of water droplets and ranging in altitude from about 3 to 6 km (about 2 to 4 mi) above the earth. Two principal genera are included in the family. Altostratus clouds appear as a thick, gray or bluish veil, through which the sun or moon may be seen only diffusely, as through a frosted glass. Altocumulus clouds have the appearance of dense, fleecy balls or puffs somewhat larger than cirrocumulus. The sun or moon shining through altocumulus clouds may produce a corona, or colored ring, markedly smaller in diameter than a halo.

Low Clouds (Stratocumulus Clouds) These clouds, also composed of water droplets, are generally less than 1.6 km (1 mi) high. Three principal forms comprise this group. Stratocumulus clouds consist of large rolls of clouds, soft and gray looking, which frequently cover the entire sky. Because the cloud mass is usually not very thick, blue sky often appears between breaks in the cloud deck. Nimbostratus clouds are thick, dark, and shapeless. They are precipitation clouds from which, as a rule, rain or snow falls. Stratus clouds are sheets of high fog. They appear as flat, white blankets, usually less than 610 m (2000 ft) above the ground. When they are broken up by warm, rising air, the sky beyond usually appears clear and blue.

Clouds with vertical development (Cumulonimbus Clouds) Clouds of this type range in height from less than 1.6 km (1 mi) to more than 13 km (8 mi) above the earth. Two main forms are included in this group. Cumulus clouds are dome-shaped, woolpack clouds most often seen during the middle and latter part of the day, when solar heating produces the vertical air currents necessary for their formation. These clouds usually have flat bases and rounded, cauliflower-like tops. Cumulonimbus clouds are dark, heavy-looking clouds rising like mountains high into the atmosphere, often showing an anvil-shaped veil of ice clouds, false cirrus, at the top. Popularly known as thunderheads, cumulonimbus clouds are usually accompanied by heavy, abrupt showers.

(Taken from :Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.)

  1. Write what the underlined pronouns in the text refer to!
  2. Write the special characteristics of each cloud with your own sentences! Paraphrase the sentences if necessary.


Arrange these jumbled letters into the correct words based on the clue given at the right column! 

  1. L -T- U–I– A– E–T- D =    height
  2. X –T –E –D –E -N =    increase in size
  3. E-G –R –N –E -A =    plural of genus
  4. D –I –S –T –I –N –G –U –I –S – H –A – B -L-E =    can be recognized
  5. Y -P-R- M- I- A-R =    basic
  6. A-E-E-R-V-A-G =    typical amount
  7. A-P-E-P-A-R =    come into view
  8. H-W-I-H-T-I-S =    somewhat like white
  9. C-O-C-A-S-N-I-O-A-L-Y-L =    sometime
  10. B-O-E-S-V-R-E-R =    person watching something
  11. S-T-U-R-E-R-C-T-U =    arrangement of particles
  12. O-O-M-C-P-S-E =    put elements together
  13. F-T-O-R-S =    frozen water
  14. P-D-R-L-E-O-T =    tiny drop
  15. N-E-T-E-I-R =    whole
  16. P-P-R-N-E-C-A-I-I-T-T-I-O =    solid form of water caused by condensation
  17. E-V-R-C-T-I-L-A =    upright
  18. F-O-N-MO-R-A-T-I =    shape of something
  19. E-H-T-A =    degree of hotness
  20. S-T-M-A-O-R-P-H-E-E =    gas around astronomical object


Text Four

Read the text well!

A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features. They also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water.There are several types of glaciers such as mountain glaciers, valley glaciers, tidewater glaciers, piedmont glaciers, hanging glaciers, ice aprons and rock glaciers

Mountain glaciers develop in high mountainous regions, often flowing out of icefields that span several peaks or even a mountain range. The largest mountain glaciers are found in Arctic Canada, Alaska, the Andes in South America, and the Himalaya in Asia.

Valley Glaciers commonly originates from mountain glaciers or icefields, these glaciers spill down valleys, looking much like giant tongues. Valley glaciers may be very long, often flowing down beyond the snow line, sometimes reaching sea level.

Tidewater glaciers are valley glaciers that flow far enough to reach out into the sea. Tidewater glaciers are responsible for calving numerous small icebergs, which although not as imposing as Antarctic icebergs, can still pose problems for shipping lanes.

Piedmont glaciers occur when steep valley glaciers spill into relatively flat plains, where they spread out into bulb-like lobes. Malaspina Glacier in Alaska is one of the most famous examples of this type of glacier, and is the largest piedmont glacier in the world. Spilling out of the Seward Icefield, Malaspina Glacier covers about 3,900 square kilometers (1,500 square miles) as it spreads across the coastal plain.

When a major valley glacier system retreats and thins, sometimes the tributary glaciers are left in smaller valleys high above the shrunken central glacier surface. These are called hanging glaciers. If the entire system has melted and disappeared, the empty high valleys are called hanging valleys.

Ice Aprons are small, steep glaciers that cling to high mountainsides. Like cirque glaciers, they are often wider than they are long. Ice aprons are common in the Alps and in New Zealand, where they often cause avalanches due to the steep inclines they occupy.

Rock glaciers sometimes form when slow-moving glacial ice is covered by debris. They are often found in steep-sided valleys, where rocks and soil fall from the valley walls onto the ice. Rock glaciers may also form when frozen ground creeps downslope.

(taken : Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation.)

Make a table to differentiate the characters of each glacier!


From the text above, choose the word which best defines the underlined and italic one!

  1. Persistent =   existing for a long time;    B.  continuing without change
  2. Deform =   to spoil the looks;   B. to alter the shape
  3. Induce =   to produce by induction;    B.  to cause the formation of
  4. Substrate =     a layer beneath the surface soil;    B. the base on which an organism lives
  5. Span =   to continue throughout;    B.  to cover
  6. Calve =   to give birth to calf;    B. to release a mass of ice that breaks away
  7. Retreat =   fall back from a previous position;   B. move back away from danger
  8. avalanche =   a sudden overwhelming quantity;    B. downhill fall of snow
  9. Coastal =   of the land next to the sea;    B.  of slope for sledding
  10. Exceed =   go beyond limits;   B. to be greater than something
  11. Abrade =   wear away by friction;    B. washed away



Chapter 3: Circumstances

BSE : 3.3/4.3/5/3.3


Basic Competence

3.3 menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait keterangan (circumstance), sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan klausa finite atau klausa nonfinite)

4.3 menyusun teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait keterangan (circumstance), dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will learn about Circumstances and review on Recount. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure used to write meaningful sentences on your Recount text.  Practicing writing sentences with Circumstances is needed to enhance your understanding on their social function and structure.

Learning process

 GENERAL INSTRUCTION : You must ensure that you understand the material step by step. At the end, there will be an evaluation to test your level of understanding on the material. When your level is above the passing score, you may continue to the next material. Before you ask for the evaluation, please ensure yourself that you have already mastered the whole material in this chapter.


Choose the correct answer!

  1. The committee will select the candidates … (a. quietly,  b. similarly) to what they had last year.
  2. (a. For Mr. Ali,  b. Thanks to Mr. Ali) … we are able to finish the proposal on time.
  3. (a. On behalf of,  b. In default of ) … the state regulation the top manager agrees to having a subject training students to be an entrepreneur.
  4. The assessment will be done on paper … (a. as well as,   b. in the form of) on computer

How are your answers? Can you explain your choice for each number?


You may be confused about the grammatical term for the answers of those four numbers above! Therefore it is necessary for you to open this link:

And learn about it.


Having learnt what circumstances are, now try doing these exercises!

  • Choose the correct circumstance for each sentence below!

In my opinion,   similarly,   instead of internet,   for her,   for the purpose of their social activity,   To my mind,   at all events,   for 36 seconds,   outside China,    for a such a long time,   in spite of a little money,   with her book,   in the new hair style,   at this time tomorrow,   in the form of a debate,   about her failure


  1. My husband designed the gazebo … to the one in Japan.
  2. He looks fashionable….
  3. Never think that I speak…, even I don’t know her.
  4. This amazing old woman has been 100, but she is able to run 100 meters…
  5. She ran away from his crazy husband….
  6. No one will be interested….
  7. … joining internship program gives a lot of experiences.
  8. The Chinese products are sold out fast…
  9. His lecture is often delivered…
  10. I like getting knowledge from books….
  11. She doesn’t want to think … anymore as she wants to step forward.
  12. … students’ low interest on reading correlates to their parents’ literacy.
  13. As she is always …, she never feels annoyed at waiting….
  14. The manager will be convenient….
  15. Those teenagers are here….
  • Rewrite the sentences into the one with proper circumstance! You should consult a dictionary to have the proper phrase or you may use the phrases on the table you have learnt.

e.g. – Since she was intimidated to gain the fame, she reported fake news.

Owing to the instant fame, she reported fake news.

They need more examples to make your explanation clearer.

Please, make your explanation clearer with some more examples.


  1. We are teaching these children how to manage the task in order that they care about their environment.
  2. Although those dancers are deaf, they are able to perform their dance well.
  3. The most remote village we ever visited was about 30 kilometers from the main route.
  4. Her charming bodyguard always accompanies her wherever she goes.
  5. Her expertise is public speaking, so she will become the representative of our company in that forum.
  6. The manager’s idea is always out of the box, so the customers are never bored to our services.
  7. Please, make a backup copy for each file to anticipate the broken computer or hacked system.
  8. Desy’s opinion is correct. We had better let everyone show their creativity.
  9. Here is the sharpest knife. You can use it to have the thin meat slices.
  10. It is hard to make both sides reconcile after the contestation as far as one of them doesn’t want to admit his being lost.
  11. There is another alternative for dieting. That is having physical exercise.
  12. This is Friday. The technicians will be checking all of the computers.
  13. How he solved the problems is the same as what his father did.
  14. He got these trophies when he was at senior high school.
  15. Some experts say that the elderly should balance their need of water in their body.


In this second activity, you are to review the Recount text on historical events.

Read this short history of the rise of the state in Indonesia carefully while noting the important events in time sequence.


The first eight centuries of the Current Era provide only fragmentary evidence about the nature of Indonesian societies. What is clear is that this was the time that the first states—as opposed to societies or communities—started to emerge in the archipelago, and that trade was a driving force in this development.

It is impossible to say with any certainty just when Indonesians first became involved in trade with peoples outside their local regions, whether in other parts of the archipelago or beyond. Certainly we have no extant records from Indonesia itself which would help resolve this problem. Evidence from the countries with which Indonesia traded, however, especially China, suggests that perhaps as far back as 500 BCE at least some of the ports on Java’s north coast were routinely trading with mainland Southeast Asia, south China and the east coast of the Indian peninsula. This trade involved the export of Javanese products such as rice, but also the spices and sandalwoods of eastern Indonesia, which suggests that there were both intra-regional and international trading linkages in operation in which the Javanese ports participated.

By the first century BCE, clear evidence exists of the extent of the region’s participation in international trade. The emperors of Rome began to receive cloves from the Maluku region of eastern Indonesia, sandalwood sent west from Indian ports and timber that might have originated in Nusa Tenggara Timor (Lesser Sunda Islands). In his Natural History, the Roman historian Pliny the Elder suggests that Indonesian outrigger-equipped boats might have been trading with the east coast of Africa by the first century CE. This suggestion is strengthened by the fact that the island of Madagascar, off the African east coast, was settled at least as early as 700 CE by peoples speaking a language which originated in southwest Kalimantan. By the first century CE Java was also tied-in to the trade route that linked China to the Roman empire in the Mediterranean, a truly international network.

Starting in about the fourth century CE, the region’s international trade began to experience a modest, but in historical terms important, expansion. In part this expansion was directed westward across the Bay of Bengal, as the ports on the east coast of the Indian peninsula sought to make up for the loss of trade from the Roman empire, now in decline, by trading with southeast and east Asia. And in part the expansion was northward, to southern China, where the breakdown of the Western Chin empire in the fourth century meant that the southern Chinese states no longer had access to the Central Asian trade routes, along which they had previously secured access to western commodities and to Buddhist holy sites and teachers in India. The only way to restore access to these goods and locations was via the sea route south around the southeastern extremity of the Asian mainland and then north and west to India.

While this sea passage had been known to traders for centuries, it had a reputation for being very dangerous: ships that ventured this way ran the risk of attack by pirates. So long as the potential for trade along the route was not particularly great, nobody was going to make much of an effort to bring it under control. By the early fifth century, though, a growing volume of trade between China and Japan on the one hand, south and west Asia and Europe on the other, was passing through the Straits of Melaka. The Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian (Fa Hsien) passed along this route in 414 on his return to China after spending some years in India studying Buddhism and collecting Buddhist texts. A number of small states grew up in the region, seeking to participate in the seaborne trade by offering services ranging from supplying ships with food and water to protection from raids by pirates—though often they were the pirates themselves.

Many of the goods that moved along this trade route were those that had earlier travelled overland—with one very important difference. Along the overland route, the Chinese had previously imported a variety of goods from western Asia, goods generically referred to as ‘Persian’. These included fumigants, perfumed woods, and gums and A Short History of Indonesia resins. Chinese trade records of the time show that these products continued to be received, via southeast Asia. However, careful analysis of these records, and of remnants of the goods themselves, shows clearly that many of the original Persian items had been replaced by goods from the Indonesian archipelago. Just when this substitution began is not known, but it seems to have become well established by about the seventh century.

By this time the Indonesian ports were experiencing their first international trade boom, boosted not only by the expanding trade with China but also by increasing Arab demand for Indonesian products, especially spices from the Maluku islands such as cloves, nutmeg and mace, and increasing Indonesian demand for exports from south Asia, such as cotton cloth.

Until quite recently it was generally believed that Indonesian participation in the commercial shipping now passing through the archipelago was limited: that the main carriers of cargoes were foreign ships, crewed by foreigners, primarily Indians or perhaps Arabs. More recent research has established that this picture was inaccurate, and that Indonesians were active both as builders of substantial ships, and as their crews, in the early years of the Current Era. One Chinese document, for instance, dated to the third century CE, says of boats from the region that ‘the large ones are more than fifty meters in length and stand out from the water four to five meters… They carry from six to seven hundred persons, with 10,000 bushels of cargo [c. 6000 tons deadweight]’.

Not just trade goods passed along these trade routes: information and ideas came too. Of particular importance were religious ideas and philosophies, and their allied cultural attributes. This was the time that states influenced by the Hindu and Buddhist cultures of India were beginning to appear in Southeast Asia, both on the mainland and in the archipelago. Buddhist texts dated to the fifth century CE and clearly inspired by Indian thinking have been found in west Kalimantan and Brunei, and in west Java. Chinese records of this time, such as the reports of travelers who had visited the region, and of embassies from the region which had visited China, noted that many local rulers seemed to have been influenced by Indian religious cultures. By the seventh century these ideas were well established in the western and central parts of the archipelago.

The question of just how Hindu and Buddhist culture first came to the archipelago has attracted the attention of scholars for well over a century. At first the general feeling was that Indians must have colonized at least some of the Indonesian islands and in this way transplanted their cultural ideas. By the middle of the twentieth century, however, the continued absence of any persuasive evidence to support this theory led to its rejection by most scholars.

The locus of explanatory emphasis then shifted to trade: it came to be argued that as Indonesia was drawn further and further into trading relationships with India, so Indian traders came to the archipelago, settled, and in so doing transmitted Indian cultural ideas to local peoples. Indian traders did indeed settle in the archipelago, often in specific sections of port cities set aside for them—but as traders did not carry much status in Indian society, and were unlikely to have had the education necessary to acquire the sophisticated religious, scientific and literary ideas that were ultimately to be adopted by Indonesians, this view also lost favour with scholars.

The Indians who would have had access to this level of education were the priests or Brahmins, the caste at the top of the status hierarchy. Thus the view was formed that Brahmins might have come to Indonesia, perhaps at the invitation of local rulers, to teach about their culture. The religious and scientific knowledge of these scholar-priests would have been very useful in consolidating these local states and raising both their status and that of their rulers, who might first have heard about Indian culture, in rudimentary form, from the traders.

In the absence of specific evidence, however, the other way of looking at this question is to suggest that it might not have been a case of Indians, of one caste or another, bringing elements of their culture A Short History of Indonesia to Indonesia, but of Indonesians, who certainly had the technology and the skills to sail across the Bay of Bengal, going to India and selectively adopting Indian ideas.

Whichever explanation is preferred, it is likely that a key element of the transmission of Indian-derived ideas to Southeast Asia came from the region itself, and not from India.

The first quasi- or proto-states in Indonesia—‘state’ here meaning a political institution standing above local communities, with a ruler owed allegiance by its members, with a coherent set of laws—probably emerged in Java around the fourth or fifth centuries of the Current Era. We know of a state called Tarumanegara, ruled at one time by a king called Purnavarman, which was located in present-day west Java in that period. Its centre or capital might have been located around Tanjung Priok, today the port of Jakarta, or at a site reasonably close by. Its rulers were Hindus, though apparently people of fairly eclectic beliefs. Contemporaneous Sanskrit language inscriptions found in Kalimantan also refer to a state called Kutei on the Mahakam river.

By the seventh century, according to Chinese sources, there were two states in particular in the archipelago that were dominant: Ho-ling in Java and Srivijaya in Sumatera.

(Source : A Short History of Indonesia by Colin Brown, 2003)


Find 10 verbs, 10 adjectives, 10 nouns and 10 adverbs from the article. Change each of them into another part of speech.

e.g.     certainty (n) – certain (adj.)

suggest (v) – suggestion (n)

historical (adj.) – history (n)

truly (adv.) – true (adj.)


To get more understanding on a Recount text, practice writing it. Therefore, use your notes on the article above to summarize it.



  1. mention the examples of circumstance and put them in sentences
  2. mention the social function and generic structure of Recount text



No Questions Yes No
1. Can you recognize types of circumstance?
2. Can you apply circumstances in sentences?
3. Can you recognize a Recount text?
4. Can you write a recount text?



Chapter 4: News Item

BE : 3.4/4.4/5/1.1

NEWS ITEM and Reported Speech

Basic Competence

3.4 membedakan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan beberapa teks news item lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait berita sederhana dari koran/radio/TV, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya

4.4 menangkap makna secara kontekstual terkait fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks news items lisan dan tulis, dalam bentuk berita sederhana koran/radio/TV     

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will learn about News Item text and review on  Reported Speech. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure used to make your writing better and better.  Practicing writings news is needed to enhance your understanding on their social function and text structure.


Find out the answer of these questions:

  1. What is the top news today?
  2. Where did it happen?
  3. When did it happen?
  4. How did it happen?
  5. Why did it happen?

Do you think that it is newsworthy? Give your reason.


The following activities will help you understand News Item texts.

Activity One

Read the news below carefully!

Indonesia court upholds President Joko’s victory in April election


Jun 27, 2019, 10:26 pm SGT


Jun 28, 2019, 8:46 am

JAKARTA – Indonesia’s Constitutional Court ruled on Thursday (June 27) to uphold the results of the April 17 presidential election that handed President Joko Widodo a second term at the helm of the world’s third-largest democracy.

The decision puts an end to months of political uncertainty, crushing yet another bid for high office by former army general Prabowo Subianto.

The court dismissed in its entirety the challenge filed by the losing candidate and his running mate Sandiaga Uno, who claimed that they were robbed of victory due to “massive, structured and systematic” fraud.

The court’s decision is final and binding, and paves the way for Mr Joko and his vice-presidential pick Ma’ruf Amin to take office in October.

Mr Prabowo said he accepted the outcome, telling reporters last night: “Although the ruling is very disappointing for us and our supporters, as agreed, we will comply with it and our Constitution and prevailing laws. We respect the ruling by the Constitutional Court.”

But he seemed to still search for options – even though the ruling cannot be appealed – saying: “We will consult with our legal team to ask for advice and opinions on whether there are still other legal and constitutional steps we might be able to take.”

In a marathon nine-hour session, the nine judges took turns to read out their responses to the claims filed by Mr Prabowo’s lawyer, rejecting them all as unfounded. The decision was unanimous.

Justice Anwar Usman, who leads the court, said: “The lawsuit lodged by the plaintiff is legally baseless.”

While the General Election Commission’s (KPU) official count gave Mr Joko 55.5 per cent of the votes in the elections to Mr Prabowo’s 44.5, the Prabowo camp claimed it had nabbed 52 per cent of the votes.

But the court rejected this, with Justice Arief Hidayat saying: “The Court is of the opinion that the petitioner’s claim has no legal ground.”

The plaintiff, he said, did not provide enough evidence of its full count of votes for all polling stations to convince the court of its claims, adding that submissions comprised mostly photographs and scans of vote tally forms “from unclear sources”.

The court also rejected claims that Mr Joko’s campaign team had engaged in vote-buying, and that votes for the incumbent were inflated by ballots from non-existent polling stations.

Justice Saldi Isra pointed out that Mr Prabowo’s lawyers claim that 2,984 non-existent polling stations had generated 895,200 “ghost votes” was unfounded as the legal team could not reveal where these stations were, how the vote rigging was carried out and who had benefited.

Mr Prabowo’s lawyers had also said that Mr Joko as incumbent was armed with state apparatus and wide-reaching influence to help him to a win.

But Justice Aswanto said the court, after examining the evidence, “has found no proof that state apparatus was not neutral”.

Citing a video of an appeal from Mr Joko to army and police officers to convey government programmes to the public, the judge said: “That is something that is normal as head of government. This was not a campaign for votes.”

Earlier this month, Mr Prabowo’s team had filed a separate lawsuit in the Supreme Court to challenge the Elections Supervisory Board’s (Bawaslu) decision not to follow up on a report it submitted alleging massive campaign violations by the Joko camp because of a lack of evidence.

This was rejected by the court on Wednesday.

It was deja vu for Mr Prabowo, who failed to convince the court as well in 2014 after losing to Mr Joko by a slim margin of 6.3 percentage points.

While thousands of Mr Prabowo’s supporters gathered in the vicinity on Thursday, the streets outside the courthouse were peaceful.

However, fears that tensions may explode, and scattered protests could once again escalate into violence – as they did in May after the KPU announced Mr Joko’s victory  – remain. Two days of riots in Jakarta had left nine dead and hundreds injured.

On Thursday, the capital was on high alert, with around 47,000 police and military personnel deployed to guard against another outbreak of violence.

In his speech following the ruling, Mr Joko said: “The Consitutional Court’s ruling is final and we should respect and implement it together.”

He called for all Indonesians to unite, despite their different political preferences, which was necessary for the country to advance and catch up with other nations.


Answer the questions based on the text!

  1. What happened in June 27?
  2. What would Prabowo do toward the decision?
  3. When will Jokowi and Ma’ruf Amin be inaugurated?
  4. What are the dismissed claims? Write the reason for each dismissed claim.


What best places the underlined word?

  1. Indonesia’s Constitutional Court ruled on Thursday (June 27) to uphold the results of the April 17 presidential election.
  2. The court’s decision is final and binding, and paves the way for Mr Joko and his vice-presidential pick Ma’ruf Amin to take office in October.
  3. The decision was unanimous.
  4. The lawsuit lodged by the plaintiff is legally baseless.
  5. Votes for the incumbent were inflated by ballots from non-existent polling stations.
  6. Thousands of Mr Prabowo’s supporters gathered in the vicinity on Thursday.
  7. On Thursday, the capital was on high alert.


Activity Two

Listen to the VOA news. Open this link:

Then, answer the questions of what, when, where, how, why it happened.

Activity Three

Now, it’s time for you to make your own news by searching thing that is newsworthy around you. Record it. Check whether your news can answer at least three wh-questions. When you are sure that it is good enough, make it as your own news. First, write the good script on it. Secondly, record your broadcasting it. Surely, you may have some interviews with the proper person to support what you are going to report. You had better do this activity with a friend as your partner.

Activity Four

In this part, you will review a Reported Speech. To refresh your knowledge about it

Click on:

Then, do the exercises below!

  • Read the news on Activity One. Find out the direct speeches, then change each of them into the Reported ones.
  • Here is a dialogue. Change it into a good paragraph.

Operator: Hello, Woolworths’.

Sue: Ah hello. I wonder if I could speak to the Personnel Manager, please?

Operator: Yes, certainly. If you’ll hold on a minute I’ll put you through.

Sue: Thank you.

John: Hello, John Adams speaking.

Sue: Ah good morning, Mr. Adams, I saw your advertisement in the Saffron Walden Reporter for a hostess (Oh yes) and I wondered if you could give me a few more details about the job.

John: Yes, certainly. Perhaps I should make it clear from the start it is a part time job. Yes, we would need you from ten in the morning until two in the afternoon, roughly.

Sue: Yes, yes, I didn’t realize that, actually. It wasn’t clear in the advertisement.

John: Aha. Are you still interested?

Sue: Well I am interested, but it would depend to some extent on what the salary is.

John: Yes, well we’re offering about f75 a week. Obviously this may be a little bit more if you have the right qualifications and experience. (Mmm) Have you in fact had any experience in catering?

Sue: Well, yes, I have. I’m at present working for and have been working for the same firm for about five years, for a small firm of consultant engineers (Mm yeah) and I’ve been doing work rather similar to the kind of work that I think is described in the advertisement.

John: Yes, well, I mean we have a fairly small staff here, we’re talking about fifteen to twenty people,  so your duties will be sort of to prepare and serve the food at just at lunchtimes.

Sue: I see. Yes, I’m sure I’d be able to manaqe that – that wouldn’t be a problem.

John: Yes that sounds about right. Perhaps you could come down for an interview some time?

Sue: Yes, yes, when would be suitable for you?

John: Let me just have a look at my diary. Perhaps, what about next Wednesday at about 2.30 in

the afternoon? Would that be all right for you?

Sue: Wednesday 2.30. I think that would be fine, actually. That’s OK.

John: Ah good. Yeah, and perhaps you could bring any qualifications you’ve got so we could have a look at them.

Sue: Yes, yes, OK.

John: Could you just tell me who you’re working for at the moment?

Sue: I’m working for Bloggses actually in the High Street.

John: Right, OK and could I just have your name?

Sue: Yes, my surname is Boardman.

John: Right, Miss Boardman. Well, see you then next Wednesday at2.30.

Sue: OK. Thanks very much then.

John: Lovely. OK. Bye.

Sue: Bye.



  1. tell what news item is and how important reported speech is  in writing news item.
  2. write the social function and generic structure of News Item text.

This following table is to check whether you have understood the materials!


No Questions Yes No
1. Can you recognize the social function and the generic structure of News Item text?
2. Can you differentiate the structure of Direct speech from Reported Speech?




Circumstance is one of the main aspects of our experiences. It is the third element of a clause. (The other two elements are Process and Participants)

Circumstances are expressed as either adverbial groups or prepositional phrases.

e.g. She talked too much.  (She is the participants, talked is the process, too much is the circumstance)

There are nine types of circumstances.

  1. EXTENT:

a. Distance: We have been walking for three kilometers.

b. Duration: She has been standing still for 30 minutes.

c. Frequency: He visits us now and then.


a. Place: He hid behind the door.

b. Time: You had better call him tomorrow afternoon.


a. Means: Don’t open this with your teeth.

b. Quality: She punched me hard.

c. Comparison: The two boys are singing like professional singers.

d. Degree: We highly appreciate his time.

 4. CAUSE:

a. Reason: He got scholarship owing to his academic achievement.

b. Purpose: He made himself caught with the aim of his child’s safety.

c. Behalf: She spoke for her mother.


a. Condition: Fill up your tank in case of no gas station nearby.

b. Default: We had better postpone the plan failing a rejection from them.

c. Concession: Despite her high intelligence, she wasn’t accepted to fill in for this position.


a. Comitative: She never goes outside without her mom.

b. Additive: I need no more besides my beloved family.

7. ROLE:

a. Guise: As one of the authorities here, Ms. Lee commanded us to leave.

b. Product: The children can recompose the song into their own song.

8. MATTER: The manager is explaining about the strategy of marketing.


a.  Source: In the words of Mr. Dire, there will be a promotion for some employers.

b. Viewpoint: For me, the questions are quite hard.

Learn this table:

Extent How far, for how long, how often
Location Where, when
Manner with a key, by magic, quietly, with some hesitation, similarly, in a different way, like, greatly, a bit, etc.
Cause because of, thanks to, owing to, (what) for, for the purpose of, (who) for, on behalf of
Contingency In case of, in the event of, in default, in the absence of, failing, in spite of, despite
Accompaniment with, without, as well as, instead of, besides
Role by way of, in the form of, into (what)
Matter about what (subject matter)
Angle according to, in the words of, in my opinion, for me