Prepositions and Adverbial Phrases

PREPOSITIONS and ADVERBIAL PHRASES

  1. PREPOSITIONS

Prepositions commonly come before the (pro) noun of :

1.1.      time and date :

1.1.1.  at  + time ( at dawn, at six, at midnight, at 7.30, etc.)

 e.g.     – He used to get up at midnight for studying but he can’t do it in this dormitory.

– Remember that the ceremony will begin at 8.00 a.m.!

 

1.1.2.  at  +  age  ( at sixteen / at the age of sixteen )

e.g.     – Though she got married at eighteen, she is mature enough to bring her children up.

– Children should be taken to school at the age of seven.

 

1.1.3   on + a day / date ( on Monday, on Christmas day, on May 31st, etc.)

e.g.     – Christians always have happy time with their family on Christmas day.

– The one I love celebrates his birthday on December 10 th.

if the time refers to the name of the period of time, we use “ at “

e.g.     – Christians have the holiest time for three days at Easter.

 

1.1.4   on + the morning / the afternoon / the evening / the night of a certain date :

e.g.     – We will have arrived on the morning of the last day of December.

– They are going to have a meeting with the press on the evening of June the first.

 

1.1.5   by + time / date / period = at the time defined / before it , not later than it

e.g.     – The show begins at 7.00 p.m., so you should arrive by 6. 30 at the latest to get the front seat.

– I will have got the result by the end of this month and I hope it can be broadcasted the day after.

 

1.1.6 on time = punctual, at the time arranged, not before and not after.

e.g.    – The television news is always broadcasted on time.

– Starting everything some time later than the arranged one is our culture. It’s different to the Western people who consider “time” as money. They are always on time.

 

1.1.7 in time / in time for + noun = not late

e.g.    – Passengers of a plane ( or train) should be in time.

– Though the opening ceremony begins at 7.00, come in time to check whether everything is ready.

 

1.1.8. at the beginning (of), at the end (of) = literally at the beginning / end :

e.g.    – There is generally a table of content at the beginning of a book and at the end there may be an index.

– Computer was invented at the beginning of 19 th century. It has been improved so fast that at the end of this century people no longer use the typewriter to file data.

in the beginning / at first = in the early stages. It implies that, later on, there was a change.

e.g.    – In the beginning / at first we used hand tools. Later we had machine.

in the end / at last = eventually after some time.

e.g.    – At first he refused our proposal, but in the end / at last he accepted it.

 

1.1.9  from is normally used with to or till / until

e.g.    – Most people work from 8.00 a.m. to / till 4.00 p.m.

 

1.1.10.  since is used for time only. It means from time in the past to the time of speaking. It is always used in Perfect tenses.

e.g.       – He has been here since Monday.

– I have not seen them since their quarrel last year.

 

1.1.11   for is used of a period of time.

e.g.       – Bake it for 45 minutes.

– He traveled in the dessert for six months.

 

1.1.12   during is used with known periods of time.

e.g.       – Motorcyclists must be careful in driving their vehicles during the rainy season.

– He was ill for a week and ate nothing during that time.

 

1.1.13   from …. to…. can be used for time and place ( see no. 1.2.1)

e.g.       – They were discussing the matter from 9.00 to 12.00.

 

1.1.14   from ….. till/until …. is for time only.

e.g.       – They didn’t talk to each other from 1990 till / until 1994.

if we have no “from”, we don’t use “to”  but “till / until”

 e.g.       – Let’s start now and work till / until dark.

 

1.1.15   after and before as prepositions must be followed by pro (noun) or gerund.

e.g.    – It is unwise to bathe immediately after a meal / eating.

– The officers had left the room before the gun shot.

 

1.2.    preposition of  travel and movement :

1.2.1. from ….. to … / to … = traveling from the starting place to the destination.

e.g.    – He drove from Jember to Surabaya without stopping.

– When will you come back to England ?

 

1.2.2. arrive in a town or country, at or in a village , at any other destination.

e.g.    – They arrived in Rome an hour ago.

– I arrived at the airport in time.

 

1.2.3. get to (= reach) can be used with any destination.

e.g.    – I want to get to Madiun before 9.00 p.m.

We can use go / come / return / arrive / get + home without a preposition :

 e.g.    – It takes twenty minutes to get home.

– They went home by taxi.

but if home is preceded or followed by a descriptive word or phrase, a preposition is necessary :

 e.g.      – She has returned to her parent’s home.

 

1.3.      method of transport

1.3.1.   traveling by car / bus / train / plane / hovercraft / sea / air

e.g.      – Going by train ,nowadays, is one of the alternatives for businessmen because of the good facility.

 

1.3.2.   on foot /  bicycle / horseback

e.g.      – After arriving at the gate of  park, we should go around on foot.

– It will be enjoyable for us to go to the beach on bicycle because not  only  the scenery around it is so beautiful but also the air is still fresh.

 

1.4.      preposition of place or  position

1.4.1.   at home, the office, a certain point / a position at a point, etc.

e.g.      – She lives at 39 street avenue.

– I will wait for you at the office.

 

1.4.2.   in a country, a town, a village, a square, a street, a room, a forest, a wood, a field, a desert, or any place which has boundaries / three dimensions ( length, breadth and depth).

e.g.      – There was a terrible accident in Trunojoyo street.

– People can enjoy beautiful dancing fountain in the fantastic park near the shop centre.

 

1.4.3. in  for the parts of the body is used with softer and more hollow parts of the body surface and can be used in talking about wounds and position inside the body.

e.g.      – He hit those boys in their stomach and face.

– He was wounded in his shoulder. ( * see this sentence for comparison : He is carrying the basket on his shoulder)

We can be “at” or “in”  a building. in means inside only and at could mean inside ( in the building or the grounds) or outside.

e.g.      – You should ask the representatives of the demonstrators to come in for compromising. They have been at the building for almost two hours.

We can be “in”  or “at”  the sea, a river, lake, swimming pool, etc. “in” actually means in the water and “at the”  means near / beside. But at sea means “ on ship”.

 

1.4.4.   into indicates movement, entrance.

e.g.      – I poured the liquid into the tube.

– A thief  broke into my house last night but he didn’t take anything.

 

1.4.5. put in / into

e.g.      – He always puts his hands in / into the pocket of his pants whenever he talks to someone.

 

1.4.6.   on can be used for both position ( on a line or on a surface) and movement.

e.g.      – He was sitting on his case while waiting for the his train.

– He went on board ship to kill his boredom.

– She kissed her son on both cheeks.

 

1.4.7.   onto can be used when there is movement involving a change of level.

e.g.      – He lifted his child onto his table.

– He climbed onto the roof to see the leaks.

 

1.4.8.   above and over can both mean “ higher than”

e.g.      – Listen ! A helicopter  is hovering  above / over us!

but over can mean” touching” or “ covering”, “across from one side to the other”, “ more than”.

e.g.      – You should put a plastic  over the table.

– The bridge will be built over the wide river.

– I paid him over one hundred million but the result is not satisfying.

 

1.4.9.   below and under. Both mean “ lower than”, but under can indicate “ contact” and  below has space between the two surfaces.

e.g.      – They stayed below us when we lived in apartment.

– She put her letter from her boyfriend under the pillow.

“below” and “under” can also mean “ junior in rank “

e.g.      – It seems that we won’t be able to compete because we are much under the other competitors.

 

1.4.10  beside  = at the side of

e.g.      – Tom’s chair number is 11 and it is 12, so she will sit beside him.

besides ( as preposition) is different. It means “ in addition to “

e.g.      – Besides working in this company, I write some books.

 

1.4.11  between normally relates a person / thing to two other persons / things.

e.g.      – Her right side is Tom while Rony is on her left, so she is between the two boys.

 

1.4.12  among relates a person / thing to more than two others

e.g.      – There is a small village among the hills and we can reach it before the dark if we hurry up.

– It is happy to be among our good friends again after a long holiday.

 

1.4.13  behind

e.g.      – She is in the second row and Tony in the first, so she is behind him.

 

1.4.14  in front of

 e.g.      – He stood in front of her

( = He stood with his back to her or he faced her but  if  they are having meal, he is sitting at one side of the table and she is at the other, the sentence becomes “ he is sitting opposite her.  opposite means “ facing front to front or back to back”).

 

1.5.      preposition + noun

1.5.1.   (to do something) by accident, by chance, by mistake

e.g.      – In the beginning we met by chance at the party and two years after we got married.

 

1.5.2.   ( art work ) by + name

e.g.      – I have a collection of novels by John Grisham because I like to study law.

– Our family bought a painting by Basuki Abdullah last year but it was stolen.

 

1.5.3.   in love with

 e.g.      – The girl standing near the cafe is in love with you. She always asks about you whenever she meets me.

 

1.5.4.   in (my) opinion

e.g.      – In my opinion the performance is not bad. It’s good enough for the beginner.

 

1.5.5.   ( to be ) on fire, on the telephone / phone, (to be / to go ) on a diet, on strike, on vacation / business / a trip / a tour .

e.g.      – The house was on fire when we arrived.

– Those students were going on trip when the accident happened.

 

1.6. preposition used with certain adjectives and participles

1.6.1.   of  is used after afraid, ashamed, aware, capable, composed, fond, frightened, nervous, scared, suspicious, terrified, tired.

e.g.      – I was afraid of making her disappointed.

– Are you aware of the risk ?

– They were tired of waiting.

 

1.6.2.   to  is used after according, accustomed, due, exposed, liable, owing, used.

 e.g.      – According to his information, there is a vacancy in this company.

– Don’t worry, she will be accustomed to the hard work.

 

1.6.3.   in is used after absorbed, interested, involved, successful.

e.g.      – I am interested in your ideas.

– He is absorbed in his book

( = his book takes much of his attention /interest/ time)

 

1.6.4.   for is used after anxious, fit, inclined, ready, sorry (about)..

e.g.      – She  is always anxious for her promotion.

– Are you ready for the next interview ?

 

1.6.5.   at is used after astonished, bad, clever, good, shocked, skillful, startled, surprised.

 e.g.      – He is good at Mathematics but bad at languages.

– We are all astonished at your failure in exam.

 

1.6.6.   on is used after keen

e.g.      – Most teenagers are keen on this music.

 

1.6.7.   with  (+ a person for doing something ) used after angry, cross, furious, upset, annoyed, disappointed, impressed, pleased.

 e.g.      – I was pretty angry with him for not calling me up.

– Why are you so upset with them ?

 

1.7.      prepositions follow the verbs.

1.7.1.   of used after consist, die, dream (of being… = imagine), take care, think, remind, accuse / suspect someone :

 e.g.      – We always dream of having our own swimming pool in our garden.

– This book consists of twenty chapter.

 

1.7.2. to used after agree (to a thing), attend, belong, happen, listen, object, refer, speak, talk. write.

e.g.      – Why don’t you attend to that meeting ?

– This sentence refers to the previous one.

 

1.7.3.   in used after believe, persist, succeed.

e.g.      – You should believe in your own capability.

– She persisted in working with him.

 

1.7.4.   for is used after apologize (to someone), apply, ask, beg, blame, care(= like something, look after), hope, long, look, prepare, punish, wait, wish.

 e.g.      – I will apologize to her for troubling her sister yesterday.

– We have longed for the true justice since he governed our country.

 

1.7.5.   on is used after concentrate, depend, insist, live, rely.

 e.g.      – We all depend on your decision.

– Some villagers still live on planting the rice though many others have moved to town.

 

1.7.6. at  is used after arrive, laugh, look, shoot, shout (when someone is angry), smile, throw.

 e.g.      – Why are they laughing at me?

– Don’t shout at me! I am not deaf.

 

1.7.7.   with is used after  agree ( with a person), argue, compare, meet ( = have a meeting).

 e.g.      – Why does she always agree with him though he often makes a wrong decision?

–  We are going to meet with the manager to talk about our salary.

 

1.7.8.   about is used after care, complain ( to someone), dream, think.

e.g.      – The people complain to the local government about the badly polluted air in their region.

– She always cares about her children’s health.

 

2.PHRASAL VERBS

If we use adverb particles such as, up, down, back, over, out, off, forward, along, away, etc. after verbs, we call this combination a phrasal verb  and mostly changes the meaning of the verb. The noun after it is the object of the whole phrase and sometimes is directly the object of the verb. Here are  some examples of this group

2.1. inseparable two-word verbs

2.1.1.   bear upon / on : have a relation, have influence, be relevant to.

 e.g.      – There are matters which bear upon / on the welfare of the community.

 

2.1.2.   call for : demand, require

e.g.      – The problem calls for immediate action.

 

2.1.3.   carry on with : continue doing something.

e.g.      – They decided to carry on with their expedition in spite of the bad weather.

 

2.1.4.   come across : find or meet by chance.

e.g.      – I came across the missing data when I opened these documents.

 

2.1.5.   come by (something): receive by accident or chance.

 e.g.      – How did they come by the ancient thing ?

 

2.1.6.   count on / upon: expect with confidence.

e.g.    – The people count on / upon the change of the political and economical atmosphere.

 

2.1.7. drop out : cease to compete (in taking part in a contest), not take part, give up the idea ( of engaged thing)

e.g.    – One of the contestants dropped out because of the injured leg.

– You had better dropped out of that silly club. It’s really  useless.

 

2.1.8. fall behind ( with something) : fail to keep level with, go too slow, not keep up with.

e.g.    – Our country’s ability in technology still falls behind with the other developing ones.

 

2.1.9. catch up with: come up to ( = reach) somebody who is going in the same direction, do all the work that hasn’t been done yet

e.g.    – You go first and I will catch up with you.

– We must catch up with the increasing of science.

 

2.1.10.              reckon on / upon : depend on, base one’s hope on.

e.g.    – Human life reckons on the clean environment.

 

2.1.11.              get down to something : deal seriously with, have relation with.

 e.g.    – You will get down to the unsolved problem if you don’t change your mind.

 

2.1.12.              get over something: recover from (illness, surprise, lost)

e.g.    – He never gets over the shock of being tortured.

get over somebody : forget.

e.g.    – You should get over him if you want to live better.

 

2.1.13.              go over something : examine the details of, study or repeat carefully, review, look at, inspect.

e.g.    – They will have gone over our proposal by next month.

– They are going to go over this factory if they are interested in buying this product.

 

2.1.14.              look into something: investigate, examine, look at the inside of the depth.

e.g.    – Would you look into the report they sent to us yesterday?

– He is looking into the pool  with a strange tool.

 

2.1.15.              run into somebody : meet unexpectedly / accidentally.

e.g.    – He told me that he had run into his ex-wife a week before.

 

2.1.16.              see to something : make arrangement, put right , repair.

e.g.    – We are sure that he will be able to see to this machine because he is the best here.

 

2.1.17.              touch on : treat a subject briefly.

e.g.    – Don’t only touch on this case. You must go over it !

 

2.2.    separable two-word verbs ( means that the object usually in pronoun can be put between them)

2.2.1. add up : find the sum

e.g.    – We should add up all the purchase soon  OR  we should add them up.

 

2.2.2. bring up(somebody): educate for the moral and the social training.

e.g.    – Those children must be brought up tenderly.

bring up something : mention.

e.g.    – At the last meeting, he brought up the problem of continuing the project.

 

2.2.3. call  in : ask someone for certain purpose / to come to the house to perform some service.

e.g.    – The police have been called in  to search for the evidence and they are inside now.

 

2.2.4. call off : cancel (= say that something which is already arranged or decided won’t be done  or something which is not started yet or abandon), give up something already in progress.

e.g.    – The director called off the opening ceremony for his new operation.

 

2.2.5.   carry on : continue ( doing usually work or duty)

   e.g.- They shouldn’t carry on this experiment though it’s been for a year because it’s useless.

 

2.2.6.   clean up ( a mess): make tidy and clean, put in order.

 e.g.      – Clean up this room before they reach this place!

 

2.2.7.   close down : shut permanently ( of a shop or business)

 e.g.      – The government will close down the shop which is found selling illegal drugs.

 

2.2.8.   cross out : remove by drawing a line through.

e.g.      – The first company has been crossed out in this project because of their incompetence.

 

2.2.9.   cut down (something) : cause to fall by cutting.

e.g.      – Irresponsible men cut down so many trees that there is always a big flood in the villages near the hill.

cut down somebody : kill or injure by striking with a sword or other edged weapon.

 e.g.      – The swordsman had cut down his enemies in cool blood.

 

2.2.10. eat up: finish eating.

e.g.- The quests ate up all the dishes the host served because of  their delicious taste.

 

2.2.11. figure out : calculate, solve a problem.

e.g.      – He is really a professional. We figure him out.

– It is difficult to figure out this matter . Let them do it.

 

2.2.12. hand out : distribute.

e.g.      – Though he has handed out the copies of evidence, no one believes them.

 

2.2.13. fill in : add what is necessary to make complete.

e.g.      – After filling in this table, we should check the others.

 

2.2.14. look up something : search for ( word in dictionary or facts in a reference book)

 e.g.      – This is very absurd explanation, so I promise to look it up in reference book)

look up somebody : visit

e.g.      – He never looked up his sick mother till she was died.

 

2.2.15. put off ( an action) : postpone, put an arrangement to a later date.

e.g.      – Why should we put off  the meeting ? It’s ridiculous.

 

2.2.16. see off somebody : accompany a traveler to his boat, plane, train, etc.

e.g.      – Look at the people seeing off their relatives or family! They are kissing, waving their hands or crying.

 

2.2.17. try on : put on ( an article of clothing) to see if it fits.

 e.g.      – The designer is trying on  his new design to a doll.

 

2.2.18. write out : write the whole off

e.g.       – The punished student must write out the homework himself.

 

NOTE :

Compare the following sentences :

  1. When did you begin to interest in social work ?

He insisted on doing this disgusting job

 

  1. It is late to call in the doctor. He is dead !

The headmaster wants us to carry on with our activity

 

  1. We will examine certain plants in this area.

The girl with blue eyes comes from Finland.

 

* In the first two sentences (no.1), the noun after preposition is the object of the preposition. This combination , verb + preposition + noun (phrase) , is called prepositional verb. Particular verbs which are followed by certain preposition can be seen in no. 1.6 and 1.7.

* Number two is the examples of phrasal verbs.

* We call a prepositional phrase for the structure of  preposition + pro (noun) in the last two sentences.  (no.3) It is not necessary to use a particular verb with certain preposition.

The important thing to pay attention to is if there is an adjective clause in the sentence, it has to be placed after the  prepositional phrase :

e.g. The men in blue whom the trainer will train fit to their uniform  (NOT   The men whom the trainer will train in blue fit to their uniform)

 

 

GRAMMAR

HORTATORY EXPOSITION TEXTS

HORTATORY EXPOSITION TEXTS

HORTATORY EXPOSITION

Communicative Purpose:

to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done

Generic Structure:

  1. Thesis
  2. Arguments
  3. Recommendation

TEXT ONE

Read the text below well, then write the main idea of each paragraph!

Many applicants are disappointed when they fail in the interview after succeeding a series of tests. They just feel unfair.  Some of them are nervous when invited for the interview despite of the preparation, while some others underestimate it. They think that it’s just a common interview that they can handle. Unfortunately, the job interview needs both mental and intellectual preparation. Someone with high intelligence may fail their job interview because of some reasons such as nervousness and improper attitude. Considering this fact, a job seeker should prepare the interview section well which is actually the most important of all the series of tests.

The first argument is that the job seekers, in fact, who have been through the tough selection tests must be the qualified ones. So, the interview should be the opportunity for them to show that they are excellent and appropriate for the job. However, sometimes the ones who are intelligent cannot express what is in their mind clearly.  They lack of the communication skill. Therefore, this skill must be trained a lot in order that they become more communicative.

Secondly, the communication skill will be useful when working no matter which field of work they are in. Interacting with colleagues can be done smoothly when we have a good skill in communicating with the fellow workers having different characters. An excellent team work gives much support on achieving the target. Therefore, a job interview is the mirror that reflects the job seekers’ true skill and attitude.

Based on the arguments above, the job seekers should have some training in facing the interview or at least they should figure out whatever needed in the interview to represent who they are.   (Written by Hedwig)

VOCABULARY

Fill in the blank with the appropriate word from the text!

  1. Although the … have high intelligence, they may not be accepted to work in an institution or company.
  2. Some young people … the importance of communication skill because they are used to having a chat through gadget.
  3. Many job seekers still think that … preparation is not needed as intelligence is the most important.
  4. When what we do or speak is … to the local tradition or custom, it is possible that others may consider us impolite.
  5. The selection of the applicants can be quite … for most of them have good quality which agrees to the requirement.
  6. Some students lose the … to be the internship in this big company due to the lack of discipline.
  7. If the interviewee is …, he / she can influence the interviewer’s consideration on him or her.
  8. … is someone whom we work with in a profession or business.
  9. How we behave ourselves reflects the good … toward others.
  10. If you know what you want to … in our life, you will be highly motivated.

TEXT TWO

Read the text below well, then choose the correct main idea below for each paragraph!

  1. The way people destroy the environment is alarming.
  2. Natural sciences are some of the subjects taught at school.
  3. Schools have important function to motivate students to love the nature.
  4. The success of the saving the nature depends on the teachers’ commitments.
  5. There are some ways for the young people to save the nature.
  6. Having outdoor activities is good to encourage students to protect the nature.
  7. Schools should motivate students to love and save the nature due to the alarming condition of the nature.

 

Indonesia is blessed with a wonderful and rich nature, but people don’t take care of them carefully. They destroy it by burning the forests, for example, and changing them into the palm plantation or houses. The rivers are polluted by sewage, other chemical substances from factories or hospitals or plastic waste people throw every day. People haven’t even realized that the changing of the temperature nowadays is because of humans’ ego. If there is not caring on the environment, sooner or later the earth will be badly damaged and becomes the dangerous planet to live on. Accordingly, schools where young people learn about many things should give activities which relate to loving the nature or saving the environment. Here are the following reasons.

Schools teach natural sciences. Those subjects can be applied in the daily activities that relate to saving the nature like recycling and reusing plastics easily collected at school. Teachers can motivate the students to apply what they have learnt to experiment the chemical and physical process to recycle plastics or other things that cannot be decomposed naturally. Experience can give a boosting effect for the students to innovate or discover methods to manage the non-organic waste. Imagine that if each school in this country has such activity, how much can they save the earth? Surely, it needs the school’s or teachers’ commitment. If they don’t care about their environment, how can they motivate their students to do that?

Another reason is that schools have more facilities to hold such activities. Mountain climbing, and students’ scouts are the instances of them. These give the students the experience of how nature treats human and the other creatures.  They will admire the GOD’s creation. Most of the students’ time is at home or at school – in a building.  So, when they undergo the fresh air and enjoy the beauty of the nature frequently while camping or climbing a mountain, they may grow their love to the nature and realize that their life absolutely depends on it. This understanding stimulates their creativity to find the ways to save the environment.

In short, schools play the main role in educating young people to love the nature which is going worse and worse, and experience teaches them a lot. When young people begin to love their nature, they will find how to revitalize and protect it. The young people are the super energy of the world.  (by Hedwig Maria)

VOCABULARY

Find the word which best defines the underlined word!

  1. The rivers are polluted by sewage.
  2. People haven’t even realized that the changing of the temperature nowadays is because of humans’ ego.
  3. The earth will be badly damaged and becomes the dangerous planet to live on.
  4. Teachers can motivate the students to apply what they have learnt to experiment the chemical and physical process to recycle plastics or other things that cannot be decomposed
  5. Experience can give a boosting effect for the students to innovate or discover methods to manage the non-organic
  6. It needs the school’s or teachers’
  7. These give the students the experience of how nature treats human and the other creatures.
  8. They will admire the GOD’s creation.
  9. They undergo the fresh air.
  10. This understanding stimulates their creativity to find the ways to save the environment.

TEXT THREE

Read the text well, then choose the correct answer!

The development of Artificial Intelligence is so fast that we will fall behind if we don’t catch it up. Many kinds of work done by human have been replaced by robots. It is predicted that human workforce won’t be needed in the next 25 years. This is called the Industrial Revolution 4.0 era. So how about the young generation? Can they get a job easily? The answer depends on whether they are able to adapt the situation or not. Surely, the ability of adaptation needs the power of creativity, discovery, innovation, analysis, and highly order thinking. Hence, students should be prepared to face the industrial revolution 4.0.

The fourth industrial revolution is based on the cyber physical production system (CPPS) merging virtual and real world. A cyber-physical system aims at the integration of computation and physical processes. This means that computers and networks are able to monitor the physical process of manufacturing at a certain process. Understanding what industrial revolution 4.0 is, we should realize that we deal with such big data that are interconnected to one another. When we can manage those data, the manufacturing activities will be more efficient and productive. Consequently, this will boost the production. For instance, the equipment installed at the mining place can censor a problem like the oxygen levels. The faster the problem is solved, the more yields the company can get. Surely, the ability of analyzing and administering the big data is absolutely demanded.

It is common that teaching activities still conventionally focus on counting, and memorizing. Unwilling to get a lot of knowledge by reading, many teachers feel disable to give the students problems to be solved . This causes them easily to give up when they face even a simple problem. Whereas, in this fourth industrial revolution the ability to find the solution is necessary. Thinking critically must be trained frequently for all subjects they are learning.  Teachers must let them experience the difficult situation and see what they are going to do to coup with it. Having ability to solve problems has been more important than having high intelligence. Furthermore, it has become one of the requirements in any job vacancy recently.

In short, making the students literate to technology should be taught earlier so that they are not only accustomed to thinking critically on whatever they face but also able to find the solution creatively and innovatively. This will make them capable to adapt the technologically change which becomes much faster than we ever taught.

(Written by Hedwig Maria)

 

1. Which is the correct thesis for the text above?

A. It should be known that Artificial Intelligence develops as fast as what we think.

B. Everyone is recommended to understad what Artificial Intelligence is.

C.  It is advisable for teachers and students to be creative and innovative at present.

D. Teachers had better make the students ready for entering the Industrial Revolution 4.0 era.

E. It will be understood why students are being prepared for Industrial Revolution 4.0 era.

 

2. How does the second paragraph relate to the first?

A. The second paragraph shows the argument supporting the thesis.

B. The second paragraph refutes the thesis found in the first paragraph.

C. The second paragraph describes the ideas of the first paragraph.

D. The first paragraph tells the fact of the problem found in paragraph two.

E. The first paragraph leads to the opposing ideas found in paragraph two.

 

3. “….This causes them easily to give up…” What does “this” refer to?  (p. Three line three)

A. The unconventionally teaching activities

B. The teacher’s unwillingness to read a lot

C. The teaching focus on counting and memorizing

D. the disability to give students problems to be solved

E. The teachers’ shortage of knowledge

 

4. Based on the text, which is the incorrect statement?

A. A lot of people working in manufactures may lose their jobs in some years later.

B. The combination of virtual and real world is important in the Industrial Revolution 4.0.

C. Manufactures will need persons with high competence in computer and network.

D. The incompetent teacher may influence students’ ability to coup with difficulties.

E. Teachers must experience difficult situation to adapt with the job requirements.

 

5. “…it has become one of the requirements in any job vacancy recently.” What is the most suitable word to replace the underlined word?

A. Conditions     B. Demands    C. Obligations     D. Commands   E. instructions

 

READING PRACTICES

MODIFIER

 MODIFIER

 ARTICLE

1.1       Indefinite article : a or an

it is used :

1.1.1. before  a  singular noun which represents no  particular  / specific person or thing :

e.g.    We want to stay in a bungalow on the next holiday.

There is a new employee in our unit.

1.1.2.     with a noun as complement of to be (linking verbs)

e.g.    He is a judge.

She looks like an artist.

1.1.3.     in certain numerical expression :

e.g.    a couple                                 half a dozen

a hundred                             a great deal of

1.1.4. in exclamation before singular noun :

e.g.    What a hot day !                  What a coincidence !

Such a fool !                           What a lovely girl !

the indefinite article is not used :

1.1.5.     before uncountable nouns (such as :advice, baggage, furniture, information, news, … etc.  )

They are often preceded by : some, a little, a lot of.

 e.g.    Come here ! I’ll give you some advice.

You should buy a lot of furniture for your office.

The nouns of materials can also show a specific thing,  then we take article :

See the comparison below :

e.g.    Some windows are made of glass.

Would you like to have a glass of wine?

I need to draw it on good paper.

He is reading a paper ( = newspaper)

1.1.6. before abstract noun, except when they are used in particular sense :

e.g.    There’s no fear in their face.

A fear of the darkness makes her scream whenever the lamp goes out.

The people who believe in liberty  nowadays need a real liberty.

1.1.7.    before names of meals, except when preceded by adjective or it is a special meal given to celebrate something :

e.g.    We always have lunch at 2 p.m.

My mother always serves us a delicious lunch.

Mom, can I invite him to have dinner with us?

We were invited to a dinner for celebrating her new baby.

1.2.     Definite article : THE

The use of the definite article :

1.2.1.    before nouns which are considered as one :

e.g.    the earth                                               the sky

the weather                                          the White house

1.2.2. before  a  noun  which has become definite  because  it  is mentioned a second time :

e.g.    He  found a dog at the back of his house. The dog  is very dirty and weak.

Be quiet ! There’s a man and a woman inside. The  man is saying something to the woman.

1.2.3. before  a noun which is made definite by the addition of  a phrase or clause :

e.g.    the man in blue                               the man whom I love

the tubes on the shelf                  the place where we met

1.2.4. before  a  noun  which can represent  only  one  particular thing:

e.g.    He is in the garden  (* the garden of this house)

Please, pass me the salt  (* the salt on the table)

I need to talk to the manager (* my manager)

1.2.5. before  superlatives, and ordinal  numbers  used  as adjective or pronoun:

e.g.    Bali is the most beautiful Island in Indonesia.

The second is more interesting.

1.2.6.     THE + adjectives represents a class of persons :

e.g.    The young = young people in general

The young is usually impatient.

The rich  = rich people in general

The rich can do anything with money, but they will be useless when they lose it.

1.2.7. before  certain  proper names of seas,  rivers,  groups  of  islands,  chains of  mountains, plural names  of  countries, deserts :

e.g.    the Artic                 the Netherlands              the Rhine

the Alps                  the Sahara                          the West Indies

THE  is  also used before names consisting of noun +  of  + noun :

e.g.    the Straits of Sunda                       the Gulf of Mexico

the Union of South Africa            the Cape of Kodok (frog)

1.2.8. before musical instrument :

e.g.    the flute                                        the violin

1.2.9. before the names of meals if they are qualified by a clause ( see 1.1.3 ) :

e.g.    The dinner (which) Mr. Andi  gave was memorable.

We couldn’t enjoy the tea time  which  was held  by  the director  yesterday.

 THE is not used :

1.2.10. before names of places (except as shown above) and names of  people

e.g.    Anton is the girls’ favorite boy in our school.

Malang is where I come from.

some exceptions :

* THE + plural surname can mean “the … family” :

e.g.     The Antons = Mr. and Mrs. Anton with their children

* before the title without a name :

e.g.     The professor gave some proofs.

She is the Princess of Wales.

1.2.11.   before  abstract  nouns except when they are used  in  more specific sense ( see also A ) :

e.g.    Honesty is one of human needs to have a happy life. Unfortunately, a real honesty, nowadays, becomes more and more difficult.

The honesty of a child is the only one we can believe in.

Life  will be more beautiful if we fill it  with  our creativity.

We should make a better life.

The life of those animals is endangered.

1.2.12.   before HOME when it is used alone :

e.g.    He went home soon after he had got a call from his parents.

They hurried home because of the rain.

* but  THE is used when it is preceded or followed by  a  de­scriptive word or phrase :

e.g.     This will be the home for homeless.

The only home which he has is the small hut.

1.2.13.   before  CHAPEL, CHURCH, MARKET, COLLEGE, SCHOOL,  HOSPITAL, COURT,  PRISON,  SEA, BED  when they are used  for  primary purpose :

e.g.     to church to pray                       to court as the witnesses

to market to sell or buy          to prison as prisoners

to college to study                    to sea as sailors

to hospital as patients             to bed to sleep

*  but when those places above are visited for other reasons, THE is used :

e.g.     I went to the church to see the renovation.

He  came  to the school to speak  to  the  headmaster about his son.

  1. DEMONSTRATIVES as adjectives

THIS, THESE, THAT, THOSE agree with the nouns in number.

e.g.     this boy                                      these boys

that building                             those buildings

DEMONSTRATIVES can be used as pronouns :

e.g.     This is my result and that is hers.

These are our rooms and those are theirs.

  1. DISTRIBUTIVE as adjectives

EACH and EVERY mean a number of persons or things considered individually but EVERY can be for all the persons or things: They are followed by SINGULAR verb.

e.g.     Every  student has the text  (= all the students  have the  texts because the number of the students are  the same as the texts)

Each  student has the text  ( the speaker checked  to each student and found that he holds the text)

Every / each  woman and man has been informed about the population growth

* EACH +  of + plural noun (* it is followed by singular verb)

e.g.     Each  of  the members doesn’t  have enough knowledge about the topic in this discussion.

  • EACH can be used as pronoun but EVERY can’t :

e.g.   A      :     Why are you still here ? They will make noise.

B       :     Don’t worry, each knows what to do. ( * Every student knows what to do )

  1. NUMERALS

4.1.     Cardinal numbers :

e.g.    one reason                                        two girls

thirty pounds                                   a hundred men

4.2.    Ordinal numbers :

e.g.    the first step                               the second stage

the twelfth floor                       the third chapter

  1. SOME, ANY and NO as adjectives

5.1.    SOME and ANY mean a certain number or amount.

SOME is used with :

5.1.1.     with affirmative sentences

e.g.    They got some data.

She is reading some English short stories this week.

5.1.2.     with the question when the answer “yes” is expected

e.g.    Do you have some questions?  Yes, I do.

Did you meet some of your old friends? Of course, I did.

5.1.3.     in offers and request

e.g.    Would you like some cookies?

Could you do me some favour?

ANY is used :

5.1.4.     in negative sentences

e.g.    I don’t need any information about that.

There aren’t any students in the classroom.

5.1.5. with HARDLY, RARELY, SCARCELY in positive sentence  ( almost negative )

e.g.    We have hardly any time for it.

People will rarely find any elephants in this forest.

5.1.6.     with question when the answer “NO” is expected

e.g.    Did you see any money here ?  No, I didn’t

Have you seen any new pictures here ? No, I haven’t since last month.

5.1.7.     after IF / WHETHER, and in expression of doubt .

e.g.    I’m not sure whether there’s any petrol station around here.

If  you should have any problem with this machine,  this  is our number.

5.2.     ANY can mean ‘EVERY’

e.g.    Any book about plants will tell you their classification.

You can use any dictionary for this.

5.3.     NO and NONE

NO (adjective) and NONE (pronoun) can be used with an affirmative verb to express a negative one.

e.g.     I use no glass for this = I don’t use any glass.

They ate up all the dishes. None is for you = there’s not any for you

  1. MANY and MUCH as adjectives

 MANY  is  used  before plural countable noun  and  MUCH  for uncountable one.

e.g.     He didn’t make many mistakes.

He needs much blood.

A slight difference in interrogative form:

e.g.    Do you have many / a lot of novels?

No, I don’t have many (novels).

Yes, I have a lot (of novels).

Did they get much / a lot of / a great deal of trouble?

No, they didn’t get much trouble.

Yes, they got a lot of / a great deal of trouble.

  1. A LITTLE / LITTLE, A FEW / FEW as adjective

 A LITTLE / LITTLE is used before uncountable noun and A FEW  / FEW  for countable noun.

A LITTLE is a small amount and A FEW is a small number.

LITTLE and FEW show scarcity or lack and have almost the force of a negative.

e.g.     I have a few books of economics (= only have three or four).

I have few books of economics  (= I almost don’t have it or I have one or two only).

There is a little fresh water here ( = Both of us still can use it).

There  is  little  fresh water here  (=  perhaps  it’s  not enough for both of us).

  1.   OTHER, ANOTHER as adjective

8.1.    indefinite

ADJECTIVE PRONOUN
Singular another + singular noun another
Plural Other + plural noun others

e.g.     A      :     Have you got their letters?

B       :     Letters? Is there another one ( as adjective)?

A      :     Yes, there are two.

Many  new students come from Jember and some others (some other new students ) are from regions around Jember.

8.2       definite

ADJECTIVE PRONOUN
Singular The other + singular noun The other
Plural The other + plural noun The others

e.g.     A      :     Do you have some other styles?

B       :     No, I have only these two styles.

A      :     This style is out of fashion while the other looks too crowded

A      :     Do you see the students whom I have chosen  for the contestants?

B       : I saw one of them in front of the headmaster’s office just now. But I don’t see the others ( the other students)

* ONE ANOTHER and EACH OTHER :

e.g.     Niza  and Ditto looked at each other = Niza looked  at  Ditto and Ditto looked at Niza.

The two naughty boys often shout at each other when they are angry.

ONE ANOTHER is usually used when there are more than two persons.

e.g.     The class is so noisy because the students are shouting at and throwing small pieces of paper to one another.

The guests who are attending the party seem to enjoy  it because they have known one another.

GRAMMAR

Chapter 4: Poem and figurative languages

CHAPTER 4 : POEM and FIGURATIVE LANGUAGES

BSE : 3.4/4.4/3/4.4 : 11 X 45 MINUTES

Basic Competence

3.4 menafsirkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks khusus dalam bentuk poem, lisan dan tulis, dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait kehidupan remaja, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya

4.4 menangkap makna secara kontekstual terkait fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks khusus dalam bentuk poem terkait kehidupan remaja

 

THE SHADOW OF THE MOON DANCED ON THE LAKE

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will learn about how to make a poem. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure used to make the poem beautiful and meaningful.  Knowing some figurative languages and practicing how to compose a poem of yourself are needed to enhance your understanding on the social function and the text structure of a poem.

Learning process

GENERAL INSTRUCTION : You must ensure that you understand the material step by step. At the end, there will be an evaluation to test your level of understanding on the material. When your level is above the passing score, you may continue to the next material. Before you ask for the evaluation, please ensure yourself that you have already mastered the whole material in this chapter.

BEFORE LEARNING

  1. READ THIS SENTENCE REPEATEDLY AND FAST

“Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.”

What do you feel after you read it fast?

  1. READ THIS POEM

 

LAUGHING SONG

When the green woods laugh with the voice of joy,

And the dimpling stream runs laughing by;

When the air does laugh with our merry wit,

And the green hill laughs with the noise of it;

 

When the meadows laugh with lively green,

And the grasshopper laughs in the merry scene;

When Mary and Susan and Emily

With their sweet round mouths sing “Ha ha he!”

 

When the painted birds laugh in the shade,

Where our table with cherries and nuts is spread:

Come live, and be merry, and joy with me,

To sing the sweet chorus of “Ha ha he!”

(taken from The Romantic Poets published by Canterbury Classics/ Baker and Taylor Publishing Group.)

 

WHILST LEARNING

ACTIVITY ONE

HERE ARE FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF POETRY, THEN WRITE THE EXPLANATION OF EACH. YOU MAY FIND IT IN THE INTERNET.

  1. Rhyme : ____________________________________________
  2. Rhythm : ____________________________________________
  3. Figurative Language : ____________________________________________
  4. Shape : ____________________________________________
  5. Mood : ____________________________________________

DISCUSS YOUR ANSWERS WITH THE CLASS AND THE TEACHER.

 

NOW, ANALYZE THE POEM, AND FIND WHETHER YOU CAN FIND ALL OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OR ONLY PARTS OF THEM. WRITE THE SENTENCE OR PHRASE SHOWING EACH CHARACTERISTIC YOU FIND.

  1. Rhyme : ________________________________________________________________________________________
  1. Rhythm : ________________________________________________________________________________________
  1. Figurative Language : ________________________________________________________________________________________
  1. Shape : ________________________________________________________________________________________
  1. Mood ________________________________________________________________________________________

DISCUSS IT AGAIN WITH YOUR CLASSMATES AND THE TEACHER.


ACTIVITY TWO

BASED ON WHAT YOU HAVE DONE IN THE FIRST ACTIVITY, NOW TRY TO MAKE ANALYSIS OF THE CONTENT OF THE POEM. WRITE IN ABOUT 100 WORDS.

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

WHEN YOU HAVE FINISHED, LET THE TEACHER READ IT .


ACTIVITY THREE

SINCE DICTION IS IMPORTANT IN COMPOSING A POEM, YOU ARE ADVISED TO LEARN SOME WORDS CHOSEN FOR IT.

OPEN YOUR DICTIONARY (ENGLISH TO ENGLISH ONE), AND FIND THE SYNONYM OF THE UNDERLINED WORDS FROM THE POEM.

  1. Joy =
  2. Dimple =
  3. Stream =
  4. Merry =
  5. Wit =
  6. Meadow =
  7. Lively =
  8. Scene =
  9. Paint =
  10. Shade =
  11. Chorus =

FOR YOUR UNDERSTANDING, USE THE WORDS ABOVE TO MAKE SENTENCES.


ACTIVITY FOUR

TO SUPPORT YOUR ABILITY IN UNDERSTANDING A POEM, IT’S BETTER FOR YOU TO LEARN TO-INFINITIVE AND GERUND STRUCTURE. HERE ARE THE EXERCISES.

  1. READ THE SENTENCES BELOW!
  • The king allowed everyone to enjoy the royal park

The cubs wanted to play with friends till the dark

But parents were worried as they tended to dart

 

WRITE THE PATTERN OF THE UNDERLINED VERB PHRASE:

________________________________________________________________________________________

WHAT IS THIS PATTERN CALLED?  (Find this pattern in the grammar book)

____________________________________________

THERE ARE CERTAIN VERBS FOR THESE PATTERNS THAT YOU MAY LEARN FROM THE GRAMMAR BOOK. LEARN THE COMPLETE FORMS OF THE PATTERNS. THEN, TRY TO MAKE YOUR OWN SENTENCES WITH SOME VERBS BELOW!

  1. Afford : ____________________________________________
  2. Mean : ____________________________________________
  3. Learn : ____________________________________________
  4. Agree : ____________________________________________
  5. Prepare : ____________________________________________
  6. Promise : ____________________________________________
  7. Decide : ____________________________________________
  8. force : ____________________________________________
  9. encourage : ____________________________________________
  10. teach : ____________________________________________
  11. warn : ____________________________________________
  12. challenge : ____________________________________________
  13. appoint : ____________________________________________
  14. assist : ____________________________________________
  15. direct: ____________________________________________

NOW, READ THE SENTENCES BELOW!

  • Dancing is fun

But try not to jump

For it can cause lump

 

WRITE THE PATTERN OF THE UNDERLINED SENTENCE :

____________________________________________WHAT IS THIS PATTERN CALLED?    _________________________________________

LEARN ABOUT THIS ON THE GRAMMAR BOOK. ITS POSITIONS ARE AS THE SAME AS THE POSITION OF NOUNS – AS SUBJECT, OBJECT OF A VERB, OBJECT OF PREPOSITION, COMPLEMENT OF TO BE  and AS MODIFIER IN A COMPOUND NOUN.

SO NOW, MAKE SOME SENTENCES WITH THIS PATTERN IN THOSE FIVE POSITIONS.

  1. ____________________________________________
  2. ____________________________________________
  3. ____________________________________________
  4. ____________________________________________
  5. ____________________________________________
  6. ____________________________________________
  7. ____________________________________________
  8. ____________________________________________
  9. ____________________________________________
  10. ____________________________________________
  11. ____________________________________________
  12. ____________________________________________
  13. ____________________________________________
  14. ____________________________________________
  15. ___________________________________________

DISCUSS WHAT YOU HAVE DONE IN ACTIVITY THREE and FOUR WITH YOUR TEACHER.

THEN, CONTINUE DOING THE EXERCISE BELOW!

Change the verb in bracket into the correct form! (to-infinitive, infinitive, or gerund)!

  1. I don’t want to delay (visit) them because I need (talk) to them. It is urgent.
  2. They won’t let you (come) although (persuade) people is your skill.
  3. Never think about (avoid) (meet) him when he asks you (assist) him.
  4. (Remember)(enjoy)(play) ball on the beach with old friends makes me smile and miss them.
  5. (Stop)(fuel)our car lengthened our distance with the other cars.
  6. The waiter was about (put) the glass on our table when someone pushed him accidentally. Luckily, he was able (manage)(put) it safely.
  7. Everyone should (stay) inside before the manager asks them (join) him in the hall.
  8. The teacher made those children (do) their work seriously by (encourage) them (get) the best.
  9. (Motivate) the grown-ups (be) creative is difficult enough because they aren’t interested in (leave) the comfort.
  10. Didn’t the leader intend (postpone) (have) a meeting in the café? Why do you still want (book) the places there?
  11. After we had practiced (escape)from the high fenced field, we attempted (disguise) and started (join) the parade but avoided (meet) the police.
  12. Why not (tell) the truth? Though you don’t admit (be) there, they will know and force you (lead) them to the smuggler.
  13. I really can’t help (spend) the whole afternoon (sit) and (listen) to the speaker who never stops (talk) about her boastful stories.
  14. Your boss will appreciate (you, take) a hard effort to reach the target. He just expects you (do) your best and challenges you (be) brave in (take) the risks.
  15. If some members object to (complete) (classify) the stuff, we have to (consider) (look for) another way.

ACTIVITY FIVE

ONE OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF POEM IS FIGURATIVE LANGUAGES. NOW, YOU ARE TO LEARN THEM.

  1. METAPHOR

Here are the examples of metaphor :

  • The assignment was a breeze.
  • The explosion of his laughter awoke my sleeping child.
  • Everyone looks annoyed. The alarm bell is ringing.
  • Her severe heartache was about to kill her.
  • She gives me a black look whenever she meets me.

 

  1. SIMILE

Here are the examples of simile :

  • At exam time, the high school student was as busy as a bee.
  • When the bell for the break rings, the students are running to the canteen as a jet does.
  • Her tears were falling down like a heavy rain.
  • When she is on the stage, she will sing like a rock and roll diva.

 

  1. ALLITERATION

Here are the examples of alliteration

  • A big bully beats a baby boy.
  • Silvia sent some sets of silk socks to her siblings.
  • Bad behavior becomes a barrier for Barry to be a bartender.
  • Danny, the dandy dancer, dares to dance with the distinguished Dane dancer.
  • After resting in a rich resort, Russian runners rushed to reach the rocky ridge.

 

  1. PERSONIFICATION

Here are the examples of personification :

  • My best seller book has traveled to some countries.
  • The meadow welcomes various species of insects.
  • The long and large leaves of coconut trees are waving to invite us to enjoy the water in its coconut.
  • When the birds begin to recite, the roosters call his family to find food.
  • The train screamed down the track.

 

 FIGURE OUT EACH FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE ABOVE!

  1. Metaphor : ____________________________________________
  2. Simile : ____________________________________________
  3. Alliteration : ____________________________________________
  4. Personification : ____________________________________________

NOW, CLASSIFY THE SENTENCES BELOW IN ACCORDANCE TO THE FIGURATIVE LANGUAGES ABOVE!

  1. The moon is looking at me sadly.
  2. Praising the peaceful place, parents are pitching a particular tent for parenting purpose.
  3. The sound of the raindrops on the roof tickles my ears.
  4. Her soft voice puts me on the soft cloud.
  5. The butterflies’ wings are like the colorful flying paper.
  6. Your words are sharp blades for my heart.
  7. Your silver hair is as shiny as the sunlight appearing in the morning.
  8. Tiny tiles are tripping to Thailand on train.
  9. Human brain is an infinite hard disk.
  10. The ants are marching on to the table to get sugary food.
  11. His pure love pierces her heart.
  12. Her eyes are as sharp as the eagles’.
  13. Eight enormous elephants entered an edge city.
  14. The moon light will lead us to find the sacred place.
  15. Winning the contest, he jumped for joy.

DISCUSS YOUR ANSWER WITH YOUR FRIENDS.


ACTIVITY SIX

 AFTER DOING SOME EXERCISES ABOVE, IT’S TIME TO PRACTICE:

  1. MAKE YOUR OWN POEM IN TWO STANZAS
  2. RECITE IT IN FRONT OF THE CLASS

 

 COMPLETE ALL THE ACTIVITIES? NOW, LET’S SUMMARIZE WHAT HAS BEEN LEARNT!

  1. The social function of a poem is ____________________________________________
  2. A poem has five characteristics. They are ________________________________________________________________________________________
  1. The grammatical structures possibly found or used in a poem are ________________________________________________________________________________________
  1. The figurative languages commonly used in a poem are ________________________________________________________________________________________

CHECK WITH YOUR TEACHER WHETHER YOUR SUMMARY IS CORRECT OR NOT. THEN FILL IN THE TABLE BELOW!

SELF-REFLECTION ON THE MASTERY OF MATERIALS

No QUESTIONS Yes No
1. Can you interpret a poem?
2. Do you understand the grammatical structures likely found in a poem?
3. Can you apply gerund and to-infinitive construction in sentences?
4. Do you understand each figurative language?
5. Can you compose your own poem?
6 Can you recite a poem?

 

A POEM RELAXES MY MIND!

I AM READY FOR THE NEXT CHAPTER….

 

ENGLISH LITERATURE XI 

Introductory IT and THERE

 INTRODUCTORY IT

IMPERSONAL IT is not the same as Pronoun “IT.

See the comparison of these two sentences using IT

Pronoun IT    : We have found the reason. It  is very reasonable.

(In this sentence, “It” refers to “the reason”)

Impersonal IT : It  is difficult to find a best friend.  (“It” means nothing. “It” introduces the sentence)

  1. INTRODUCTORY IT IN SUBJECT POSITION

1.1   IT + TO BE + ADJECTIVE / NOUN PHRASE + to INFINITIVE

e.g. – It  is  so nice to sit here with you.  (= To  sit  here with you is so nice)

– It was a mistake to ignore his advice. (= To ignore his advice was a mistake)

1.2   IT + TO BE + ADJECTIVE / NOUN  PHRASE + GERUND

e.g. – It  will be useless complaining to them.   (=  Complaining to them will be useless)

– It  was a hard effort getting everything  ready in  time.  (=  Getting everything ready in time  was  a hard effort)

1.3   IT + TO BE + ADJECTIVE / NOUN (PHRASE) + CLAUSE

e.g. – It  is  possible   that he  didn’t  get  your  message.  (= That he didn’t get your message is possible)

– It  was a mystery how the burglar got in.  (=  How  the burglar got in was a mystery)

1.4   IT + TO BE + ADJECTIVE / NOUN  PHRASE  + FOR + NOUN/PRONOUN  +  to INFINITIVE

e.g. – It  will  be quite all right for you  to  leave  early. (= To leave early will be quite all right for you)

– It is a rule for men and women to sit apart here.  (= To sit apart is a rule for men and women here)

1.5   IT + LINKING VERB  + ADJECTIVE / NOUN ( PHRASE ) + to    INFINITIVE    / GERUND / CLAUSE

e.g. – It  seems  pointless to go any further.  (= To  go  any further seems pointless)

– It looks fun having a trip with our friends.  (= Having a trip with our friends looks fun)

– It doesn’t appear sure that I will be sent abroad next year.  (= That I will be sent abroad next year  doesn’t appear sure)

1.6   IT can be followed by certain verbs such as :

e.g. – It  doesn’t matter for me how complicated the  problem is. I’ll try to solve it.

It  took  /  needed two hours to  get  home  yesterday because of traffic jam.

2. INTRODUCTORY IT IN OBJECT POSITION

Because the Introductory IT functions as object, here are some verbs that can be used as the predicates:

admit,  believe,  consider,  discover,  expect,  feel,  find,  make,  realize,  think,  understand,  wonder

2.1   S + VERB + IT + ADJECTIVE / NOUN ( phrase )+ to INFINITIVE / GERUND  / CLAUSE

e.g. – Do you think it odd that I should live alone?

– Don’t you consider it wrong to cheat in examination?

2.2   S + VERB + IT + ADJECTIVE / NOUN ( phrase) + FOR PRONOUN/NOUN + to INFINITIVE / GERUND / CLAUSE

e.g. – Some  people consider it very strange for men  to  let their hair grow long.

– I  find it hard for teachers to make their  students realize their responsibility.

3. INTRODUCTORY “IT” IS USED IN EXPRESSIONS REFERRING TO TIME,  WEATHER, TEMPERATURE AND  DISTANCE :

e.g. – It’s ten o’clock.

– It’s too late.

– It seems cool and it’s getting windy.

– It is 230 miles from New York to Washington.

– It is 10 degrees below the freezing point.

4. INTRODUCTORY “IT” IS USED TO EXPRESS THE PRESENT SITUATION

         e.g. – It smells sickening around here.

– Isn’t it lovely here ? Why don’t you stay any longer ?

INTRODUCTORY THERE

Introductory  “There” is used to express that something or  someone exists or doesn’t exist.

The general form of Introductory “There” is :

THERE + BE+ SUBJECT + ADVERBIAL PHRASE

e.g. – There is a dog under your chair.

– There will be many people around the square.

– There are many problems that we have to finish.

Compare THERE  as an adverb of place to THERE as an introduction :

e.g. – The boys are there, near the hall.       (as an adverb of place)

There are some boys inside                                (as an introduction)

Here  are some other ways of using THERE instead of  the  general form :

1.1   THERE + APPEAR / SEEM + TO BE + SUBJECT

e.g. – There  appears to be several reasons for  changing  our plans.

– There seems to be a big problem in this unit.

  • THERE + APPEAR / SEEM + TO HAVE BEEN + SUBJECT (shows the previous time period)

e.g.                There appears to have been some troubles before.

There seems to have been a misunderstanding between them.

1.2   THERE + BE + SUBJECT + (active or passive) PARTICIPLE

e.g. – There is a girl playing a piano inside.

– There have been many villagers killed.

1.3   THERE + IS (modal auxiliary  + be) + SOMETHING / ANYTHING / NOTHING + WRONG  /   THE MATTER

e.g. – Don’t worry, there’s nothing wrong here.

– Is there anything wrong with your mind ?

– There must be something the matter with them.

1.4   THERE with the expressions showing the useless thing ;

e.g. – There’s no sense in making him angry.

– There’s no point in talking about it again.

– There’s no use in trying to explain it to them.

– There’s no need to hurry, we have a lot of time.

1.5   THERE in exclamatory sentence to show the coming out of something or someone:

e.g.        –              A             :               Why is the bus so late?

B        :               There comes our bus!  (= There it comes)  Let’s go!

– A        :               How long have you been looking for the key?

B        :               Ten minutes I think. I forget where I put it.

A        :               There is what you are looking for, on the shelf!

In this case, HERE can be used to be contrasted to THERE :

e.g. – (In the dining time) Here comes the food !   (= Here it comes)

– A   :               Some of the books are lost. Do you know where they are?

B        :               Here they are! (Here are the books)

GRAMMAR