1.1. COMMAND is expressed by imperative
1.1.1. The imperative for the second person
The form is infinitive without to :
e.g. Hurry up! Be quiet!
Do it quickly! Be patient!
For the negative ( = prohibition) we put DON’T before the verb. It can mean a REQUEST not to do something :
e.g. Don’t touch it! Don’t be shy!
Don’t leave it there! Don’t be late!
Prohibition can be indicated by means of brief announcements, with not allowed, prohibited or gerund (V1-ing):
e.g. No smoking inside!
Swimming prohibited here!
Sandals not allowed in this office!
The person who is addressed is very often not mentioned, but it can appear at the end of the phrase.
e.g. Eat your dinner, Andi!
Come and join us, everybody!
“DO” can be placed before the affirmative imperative to show the irritation or persuasion :
e.g. Do be calm! It won’t help if you are panic.
Do forget it! I’m sick to hear it.
The use of PLEASE or WILL YOU softens a command into a REQUEST and the addition of WON’T YOU changes an imperative into an INVITATION:
e.g. Close your books, please! or Please, close your book!
Hold it tightly, will you?
Have a share in this car, won’t you? We still have enough space for both of you.
1.1.2. The imperative for the first person.
The form : LET’S + infinitive without to.
This form can be replaced by SHALL WE as SUGGESTION. (see MODAL)
e.g. Let’s wait for them! or Shall we wait for them?
Let’s finish it now! or Shall we finish it now?
Let’s wait for them, shall we?
Let’s finish it now, shall we?
For the negative imperative, we put NOT before the verb :
e.g. Let’s not repeat it! Let’s not show it!
1.1.3. The imperative for the third person
The form : LET HER / HIM / THEM / IT + infinitive without to
e.g. Let them go by taxi = They had better go by train (* more usual in modern English) in negative becomes “ They had better not go by train. “
1.2 Other ways of expressing COMMANDS.
Commands are often expressed as obligation by MUST. (see MODAL)
Mostly we use MODAL in expressing request, but here are some additions.
2.1. formal request found in letters :
e.g. I should be grateful if you would tell me whether you have any vacancies.
Would you be kind / good enough to keep me informed about the vacancies?
Would you be so kind as to keep me informed about the vacancies?
2.2. with LET + noun or pronoun
e.g. Let us know if you need our help.
Let me try it again.
Don’t let your dog enter my garden.
2.3. WON’T YOU can mean invitation
e.g. Won’t you stay a little longer?
Won’t you see my last creation?
3.1. OUGHT TO, and SHOULD (see MODAL)
3.2. YOU HAD BETTER + Infinitive without to
e.g. You had better take off your shoes
You’d better not follow this instruction
3.3. IF I WERE YOU I SHOULD / WOULD ….
e.g. If I were you, I would take this chance
If I were you, I’d not risk my position
3.4. WHY DON’T YOU …
e.g. Why don’t you take a computer course?
Why don’t you stay and wait for a moment?
e.g. How nice (it is) to sit here with you!
How much wiser (it would have been) to reduce the speed.
What a pity (it is) to waste them!
What a pleasant surprise!
* it + be can be omitted
5. OTHER EXPRESSIONS
5.1 INTRODUCING ONESELF
formal : Allow me to introduce myself. My name is …
Let me introduce myself. I’m …
I’m … How do you do?
response : Nice to meet you. My name is …
I’m … . How do you do?
informal : Hi. My name is … . What’s yours?
I’m … . How are you?
response : My name is …
I’m … . Fine, thanks.
e.g. Mr. Bane : Let me introduce myself. My name is Bane.
Mr. Chan : I’m Chan. Nice to meet you.
5.2 INTRODUCING OTHERS
formal : I’d like to introduce my (the) …., …..( a name)
Let me introduce my …, … ( a name)
response : How do you do ?
informal : This is my …, … (a name)
response : Hi. I’m … . Pleased to meet you.
Hello, I’m … . Nice to meet you.
e.g. Ali : I’d like to introduce my new manager, Mr. Soma.
Mr. Alwi : How do you do?
5.3 Expressing GRATITUDE
Thank you so / very much. That’s very kind of you.
Thanks for …
I want to tell you how grateful I am …
I’m extremely grateful to you for …
I’m grateful for …
RESPONSE : You’re welcome
That’s all right
It’s a pleasure
Not at all
e.g. Mr. Andi : My daughter has been successful. I’m extremely grateful for your guiding her patiently.
Mrs. Ani : Not at all. I’m glad to help her. She is a smart girl.
5.4 Expressing A RESPOND TO GOOD NEWS
How nice / wonderful / exciting (it is)!
I’m pleased / glad to her that!
Nice to hear that!
e.g. Ronni : I’m invited to Mr. Joe’s concert. I have been looking forward to this moment since I met him last year.
Ita : How wonderful! I hope you can enjoy your time.
5.5 Expressing SYMPATHY
I’ m sorry to hear that!
That’s too bad!
How awful / terrible!
e.g. Mr. Fun : I lost my son in this beach two years ago.
Mr. Ian : I’m sorry to hear that. That must have been very hard for you.
5.6 ASKING AND GIVING OPINION
asking an opinion : giving an opinion :
What do you think of … In my opinion …
How about … I think that …
It seems to me that …
According to my opinion, …
e.g. Oscar : What do you think about the seminar which I held last week?
Lea : I think that it was successful enough. However, you must pay attention on the time. Some guests felt bored.
5.7 Expressing LIKE and DISLIKE
The verbs expressing “like” are adore, love, be crazy about, be mad about, like, be fond of, be keen of ( * These verbs are followed by noun or verb1-ing)
e.g. I love gardening much.
She is fond of talking about plants.
The verbs expressing dislike are dislike, hate, can’t stand, can’t bear ( * These verbs are followed by noun or verb1-ing).
e.g. They dislike practicing under the sunshine.
I can’t stand his bad behavior.
5.8 Expressing APOLOGY
I’m terribly / extremely sorry for …
I’m sorry for …
I apologize for …
e.g. Rins : I’m sorry for the trouble that I made yesterday.
Arl : It’s all right.
5.9 Expressing AGREEMENT and DISAGREEMENT
I agree I disagree
I think so I don’t think so
Certainly That’s not right
I’m sorry, but you are wrong.
e.g. Shinta : I think that the people here don’t have any knowledge about farming.
Arin : I don’t think so. Look ! The plants are growing fertilely.
Clark : The film doesn’t have any interest at all.
Fenn : I think so.
It satisfies me much
It gives me much satisfaction
It’s really satisfying
I’m really disappointed
It disappoints me much
It doesn’t give any satisfaction at all
It is disappointing
e.g. Jay : How about your trip ?
Lita : It satisfies much. I plan to visit those places again next year.
Irene : What do you think about the service in that restaurant ?
Fandy : It doesn’t give any satisfaction at all. The waitress aren’t kind and the food is terrible.