to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series
Generic Structure of Procedure
- Goal: showing the purpose
- Material: Telling the needed materials
- Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose
Read the text well, then do the instructions below!
The first step in brewing, called malting, involves steeping the grain in water for several days until it begins to germinate, or sprout. During germination, enzymes within the grain convert the hard, starchy interior of the grain to a type of sugar called maltose. At this point, the grain is called malt. After several days, when the majority of the starch has been converted to sugar, the malt is heated and dried. This process, called kilning, stops the malt from germinating any further. A portion of the malt may be further roasted to varying depths of color and flavor to create different styles of beer.
After kilning, the dried malt is processed in a mill, which cracks the husks (the outer coating of the grain). The cracked malt is transferred to a container called a mash tun, and hot water is added. The malt steeps in the liquid, usually for one to two hours. This process, called mashing, breaks down the complex sugars in the grain and releases them in the water, producing a sweet liquid called wort. The temperature and amount of time used to mash the malt affects the body and flavor of the finished beer.
In the next step, called brewing, the wort is transferred to a large brew kettle and boiled for up to two hours. Boiling effectively sterilizes the wort to kill any bacteria that may spoil the wort during fermentation. During this stage of the brewing process, hops are added to the wort to provide a spicy flavor and bitterness that balances the sweetness of the wort. The types of hops used and the length of time they are boiled are determined by the style of beer being made. To produce a beer with a stronger, more bitter flavor, hops are boiled for at least 30 minutes and often longer. This enables the bitter oils in the hops to fully infuse into the wort.
(Taken from Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
- Simplify the procedure above!
- Write the ingredients which are needed!
- Tell the reference of each of the underlined word in the text!
Find the meaning of these words!
Tips on “How To Avoid Traffic Jam”
Most gridlock strikes when the quick braking of one driver ripples rapidly down a string of cars. “There is no accident, there is no bottleneck – it is a phantom blockage,” says Berthold K.P. Horn, a computer scientist at MIT. Horn recently developed an algorithm that shows traffic can flow smoothly when people follow certain rules. Here’s what you can do to help:
- Pay attention to the car behind you, and maintain an equal distance between it and the car ahead. With a buffer, if the driver in front briefly brakes, you won’t pass the hiccup along.
- Drive at the same speed as the cars around you. Accelerating to catch up to the vehicle ahead will result in braking or switching lanes, which may force another driver to slow suddenly.
- Buy a car with an adaptive cruise-control system to automatically sync your speed with surrounding traffic. Or, save up for when a self-driving car hits a market.
(taken from “Don Bayley/Getty Images”)
Choose the correct answer!
- The purpose of the text is … (A. to tell how to avoid traffic jams; B.to guide the drivers to use the brake system; C. to inform how to accelerate; D.to ask the people to flow more smoothly; E. to pay attention on driving a car)
- Who is Horn? (A. the writer; B. a computer scientist; C. a traffic regulator; D. a policeman; E. one of the drivers)
- Which is correct according to the first step? (A. People should always maintain equal distance between cars; B. People should not drive closely to the other cars; C. People should have buffer to maintain the speed; D.People should maintain the speed; E. People should brake briefly)
- Which steps asks us to have constant speed? (A. first step; B. first and second steps; C. second step; D. all steps; E. third step)
- Fill in the blank with the appropriate word taken from the text!
When a car in front of you lowers the speed without any sign, you will brake your car … (A. adaptively; B. suddenly; C. rapidly; D. recently; E.smoothly)
- What is the synonym of the “rules”? (in p.1 line.5) (A. regulations; B.measurements; C. commands; D. laws; E. steps)
Read the instructions while completing it with the sentences below!
CAMERA BASIC INSTRUCTION MANUAL
- Insert the battery.
- Insert the card. With the card’s label facing toward the back of the camera, insert it into the card slot.
- Attach the lens. Align the lens’ white or red mount index with the camera’s mount index of the same color.
- Set the lens’ focus mode switch to <AF>
- Set the power switch to <ON>. When the LCD monitor displays the date/time/zone setting screens, a. …, b. …, c. …
- Set the Mode Dial to <A+>. All the necessary camera settings will be set automatically.
- Focus on the subject, a. …, b. …
- Take the picture. Press the shutter button completely to take the picture.
- Review the picture, a. …, b. …
(source: Canon Manual)
Insert each sentence into the text!
- Display the menu screen. Press the <MENU> button to display the menu screen.
- Press the shutter button halfway, and the camera will focus on the subject.
- To display the image again, press the right arrow button.
- If necessary, the built-in flash will be raised.
- Set the time zone. (London) is set by default. Press the right or left arrow keys to select the time zone box.
- Look through the viewfinder and aim the viewfinder center over the subject.
- Under the tab, select (Date/Time/Zone). Press the right or left arrow keys to select the tab and Press the up and down button keys to select (Date/Time/Zone), then press <set>
- The captured image will be displayed for approx. 2 seconds on the LCD monitor.
Fill in the blank with another part of speech of the underlined word from the text!
- Lens are the most … in a camera. The variety of the lens depends on lens focal length.
- Never forget to … off the power button after using the camera.
- The … of the pictures taken by this camera is interesting enough to attract many visitors.
- The … light can help the camera to create a clear picture.
- You can use the … mode if it’s difficult to adjust the focus.
- You must keep this … in order that the dust may not destroy the lens.
- The … of a shot which can tell a lot about facts must be considered before making pictures.
- The screen … is needed to show how far your work is.
- Do you need the … of what they have done this week?
- Everyone should understand the … of taking pictures so that those pictures can tell something.