INTRODUCTORY IT is not the same as Pronoun “IT”.
See the comparison of these two sentences using IT
Pronoun IT : We have found the reason. It is very reasonable.
(In this sentence, “It” refers to “the reason”)
Impersonal IT : It is difficult to find a best friend. (“It” means nothing. “It” introduces the sentence)
- IN SUBJECT POSITION
1.1 IT + TO BE + ADJECTIVE / NOUN PHRASE + to INFINITIVE
e.g. – It is so nice to sit here with you. (= To sit here with you is so nice)
– It was a mistake to ignore his advice. (= To ignore his advice was a mistake)
1.2 IT + TO BE + ADJECTIVE / NOUN PHRASE + GERUND
e.g. – It will be useless complaining to them. (= Complaining to them will be useless)
– It was a hard effort getting everything ready in time. (= Getting everything ready in time was a hard effort)
1.3 IT + TO BE + ADJECTIVE / NOUN (PHRASE) + CLAUSE
e.g. – It is possible that he didn’t get your message. (= That he didn’t get your message is possible)
– It was a mystery how the burglar got in. (= How the burglar got in was a mystery)
1.4 IT + TO BE + ADJECTIVE / NOUN PHRASE + FOR + NOUN/PRONOUN + to INFINITIVE
e.g. – It will be quite all right for you to leave early. (= To leave early will be quite all right for you)
– It is a rule for men and women to sit apart here. (= To sit apart is a rule for men and women here)
1.5 IT + LINKING VERB + ADJECTIVE / NOUN ( PHRASE ) + to INFINITIVE / GERUND / CLAUSE
e.g. – It seems pointless to go any further. (= To go any further seems pointless)
– It looks fun having a trip with our friends. (= Having a trip with our friends looks fun)
– It doesn’t appear sure that I will be sent abroad next year. (= That I will be sent abroad next year doesn’t appear sure)
1.6 IT can be followed by certain verbs such as :
e.g. – It doesn’t matter for me how complicated the problem is. I’ll try to solve it.
– It took / needed two hours to get home yesterday because of traffic jam.
2. IN OBJECT POSITION
Because the Introductory IT functions as object, here are some verbs that can be used as the predicates:
admit, believe, consider, discover, expect, feel, find, make, realize, think, understand, wonder
2.1 S + VERB + IT + ADJECTIVE / NOUN ( phrase )+ to INFINITIVE / GERUND / CLAUSE
e.g. – Do you think it odd that I should live alone?
– Don’t you consider it wrong to cheat in examination?
2.2 S + VERB + IT + ADJECTIVE / NOUN ( phrase) + FOR PRONOUN/NOUN + to INFINITIVE / GERUND / CLAUSE
e.g. – Some people consider it very strange for men to let their hair grow long.
– I find it hard for teachers to make their students realize their responsibility.
3. USED IN EXPRESSIONS REFERRING TO TIME, WEATHER, TEMPERATURE AND DISTANCE :
e.g. – It’s ten o’clock.
– It’s too late.
– It seems cool and it’s getting windy.
– It is 230 miles from New York to Washington.
– It is 10 degrees below the freezing point.
4. USED TO EXPRESS THE PRESENT SITUATION
e.g. – It smells sickening around here.
– Isn’t it lovely here ? Why don’t you stay any longer ?
Introductory “There” is used to express that something or someone exists or doesn’t exist.
The general form of Introductory “There” is :
THERE + BE+ SUBJECT
e.g. – There is a dog under your chair.
– There will be many people around the square.
– There are many problems that we have to finish.
Compare THERE as an adverb of place to THERE as an introduction :
e.g. – The boys are there, near the hall. (as an adverb of place)
– There are some boys inside (as an introduction)
Here are some other ways of using THERE instead of the general form :
1.1 THERE + APPEAR / SEEM + TO BE + SUBJECT
e.g. – There appears to be several reasons for changing our plans.
– There seems to be a big problem in this unit.
- THERE + APPEAR / SEEM + TO HAVE BEEN + SUBJECT (shows the previous time period)
e.g. There appears to have been some troubles before.
There seems to have been a misunderstanding between them.
1.2 THERE + BE + SUBJECT + (active or passive) PARTICIPLE
e.g. – There is a girl playing a piano inside.
– There have been many villagers killed.
1.3 THERE + IS (modal auxiliary + be) + SOMETHING / ANYTHING / NOTHING + WRONG / THE MATTER
e.g. – Don’t worry, there’s nothing wrong here.
– Is there anything wrong with your mind ?
– There must be something the matter with them.
1.4 THERE with the expressions showing the useless thing ;
e.g. – There’s no sense in making him angry.
– There’s no point in talking about it again.
– There’s no use in trying to explain it to them.
– There’s no need to hurry, we have a lot of time.
1.5 THERE in exclamatory sentence to show the coming out of something or someone:
e.g. – A : Why is the bus so late?
B : There comes our bus! (= There it comes) Let’s go!
– A : How long have you been looking for the key?
B : Ten minutes I think. I forget where I put it.
A : There is what you are looking for, on the shelf!
In this case, HERE can be used to be contrasted to THERE :
e.g. – (In the dining time) Here comes the food ! (= Here it comes)
– A : Some of the books are lost. Do you know where they are?
B : Here they are! (Here are the books)