INTRODUCTORY IT and THERE

 INTRODUCTORY IT

INTRODUCTORY IT is not the same as Pronoun “IT.

See the comparison of these two sentences using IT

Pronoun IT    : We have found the reason. It  is very reasonable.

(In this sentence, “It” refers to “the reason”)

Impersonal IT : It  is difficult to find a best friend.  (“It” means nothing. “It” introduces the sentence)

  1.  IN SUBJECT POSITION

1.1   IT + TO BE + ADJECTIVE / NOUN PHRASE + to INFINITIVE

e.g. – It  is  so nice to sit here with you.  (= To  sit  here with you is so nice)

– It was a mistake to ignore his advice. (= To ignore his advice was a mistake)

1.2   IT + TO BE + ADJECTIVE / NOUN  PHRASE + GERUND

e.g. – It  will be useless complaining to them.   (=  Complaining to them will be useless)

– It  was a hard effort getting everything  ready in  time.  (=  Getting everything ready in time  was  a hard effort)

1.3   IT + TO BE + ADJECTIVE / NOUN (PHRASE) + CLAUSE

e.g. – It  is  possible   that he  didn’t  get  your  message.  (= That he didn’t get your message is possible)

– It  was a mystery how the burglar got in.  (=  How  the burglar got in was a mystery)

1.4   IT + TO BE + ADJECTIVE / NOUN  PHRASE  + FOR + NOUN/PRONOUN  +  to INFINITIVE

e.g. – It  will  be quite all right for you  to  leave  early. (= To leave early will be quite all right for you)

– It is a rule for men and women to sit apart here.  (= To sit apart is a rule for men and women here)

1.5   IT + LINKING VERB  + ADJECTIVE / NOUN ( PHRASE ) + to    INFINITIVE    / GERUND / CLAUSE

e.g. – It  seems  pointless to go any further.  (= To  go  any further seems pointless)

– It looks fun having a trip with our friends.  (= Having a trip with our friends looks fun)

– It doesn’t appear sure that I will be sent abroad next year.  (= That I will be sent abroad next year  doesn’t appear sure)

1.6   IT can be followed by certain verbs such as :

e.g. – It  doesn’t matter for me how complicated the  problem is. I’ll try to solve it.

It  took  /  needed two hours to  get  home  yesterday because of traffic jam.

2.  IN OBJECT POSITION

Because the Introductory IT functions as object, here are some verbs that can be used as the predicates:

admit,  believe,  consider,  discover,  expect,  feel,  find,  make,  realize,  think,  understand,  wonder

2.1   S + VERB + IT + ADJECTIVE / NOUN ( phrase )+ to INFINITIVE / GERUND  / CLAUSE

e.g. – Do you think it odd that I should live alone?

– Don’t you consider it wrong to cheat in examination?

2.2   S + VERB + IT + ADJECTIVE / NOUN ( phrase) + FOR PRONOUN/NOUN + to INFINITIVE / GERUND / CLAUSE

e.g. – Some  people consider it very strange for men  to  let their hair grow long.

– I  find it hard for teachers to make their  students realize their responsibility.

3.  USED IN EXPRESSIONS REFERRING TO TIME,  WEATHER, TEMPERATURE AND  DISTANCE :

e.g. – It’s ten o’clock.

– It’s too late.

– It seems cool and it’s getting windy.

– It is 230 miles from New York to Washington.

– It is 10 degrees below the freezing point.

4.  USED TO EXPRESS THE PRESENT SITUATION

         e.g. – It smells sickening around here.

– Isn’t it lovely here ? Why don’t you stay any longer ?

INTRODUCTORY THERE

Introductory  “There” is used to express that something or  someone exists or doesn’t exist.

The general form of Introductory “There” is :

THERE + BE+ SUBJECT 

e.g. – There is a dog under your chair.

– There will be many people around the square.

– There are many problems that we have to finish.

Compare THERE  as an adverb of place to THERE as an introduction :

e.g. – The boys are there, near the hall.       (as an adverb of place)

There are some boys inside                                (as an introduction)

Here  are some other ways of using THERE instead of  the  general form :

1.1   THERE + APPEAR / SEEM + TO BE + SUBJECT

e.g. – There  appears to be several reasons for  changing  our plans.

– There seems to be a big problem in this unit.

  • THERE + APPEAR / SEEM + TO HAVE BEEN + SUBJECT (shows the previous time period)

e.g.                There appears to have been some troubles before.

There seems to have been a misunderstanding between them.

1.2   THERE + BE + SUBJECT + (active or passive) PARTICIPLE

e.g. – There is a girl playing a piano inside.

– There have been many villagers killed.

1.3   THERE + IS (modal auxiliary  + be) + SOMETHING / ANYTHING / NOTHING + WRONG  /   THE MATTER

e.g. – Don’t worry, there’s nothing wrong here.

– Is there anything wrong with your mind ?

– There must be something the matter with them.

1.4   THERE with the expressions showing the useless thing ;

e.g. – There’s no sense in making him angry.

– There’s no point in talking about it again.

– There’s no use in trying to explain it to them.

– There’s no need to hurry, we have a lot of time.

1.5   THERE in exclamatory sentence to show the coming out of something or someone:

e.g.        –              A             :               Why is the bus so late?

B        :               There comes our bus!  (= There it comes)  Let’s go!

– A        :               How long have you been looking for the key?

B        :               Ten minutes I think. I forget where I put it.

A        :               There is what you are looking for, on the shelf!

In this case, HERE can be used to be contrasted to THERE :

e.g. – (In the dining time) Here comes the food !   (= Here it comes)

– A   :               Some of the books are lost. Do you know where they are?

B        :               Here they are! (Here are the books)

GRAMMAR 

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