Participles

PARTICIPLES

 

  1. PRESENT  /  ACTIVE PARTICIPLE

FORM : VERB 1  +  -ING

USED :

1.1 as adjective

in noun phrase (as noun modifier):

e.g.     –  running men (= men who are running )

–  floating plants (= plants which are floating)

–  singing bird (= a bird that is singing)

–  embarrassing remark (= remark which is embarrassing)

–  disappointing answer (= an answer that is  disappointing)

in sentences:

e.g.     –  Those artificial flowers interest everyone who comes to this exhibition. They are interesting (note : they refers to those artificial flowers)

–  This kind of job bores me. It is really boring.

–  Having a trip with friends amused us. It was amusing.

 

1.2       to form continuous tenses

e.g.     –  The workers are striking for the higher salary.

–  The environmentalists have been having a research  on this river since a month ago.

 

1.3       after the verbs of perception :

SEE, HEAR, FEEL, SMELL  and the verbs: LISTEN, NOTICE, WATCH

e.g.     – I saw them talking to someone.  (= They were  talking to someone when I  saw them, but I didn’t notice  what happened then because I left them.)

Compare to this:

– I saw them talk to someone and go into the  building. (the infinitive implies that the two actions were complete.)

– We heard someone playing a violin in your house when we were having a talk with our quests.

Compare to this:

– We heard someone play a violin in your house. It’s so beautiful that we stopped to hear it.

–  They told me that they had watched you  demonstrating your skill in acrobatics.

 

1.4       in certain verbs :

1.4.1 CATCH / FIND + OBJECT + PRESENT PARTICIPLE

(  The action commonly displeases the subject )

e.g.     – My  teacher  caught  me cheating in  test.

– The farmers found many birds eating their seeds.

 

1.4.2 HAVE  +  OBJECT  +  PRESENT PARTICIPLE

e.g.     – We  will have the people realizing the  danger  of nuclear  weapon. (= as the result of our  efforts, they will realize about it)

 

1.4.3 SPEND / WASTE + AN EXPRESSION OF TIME OR MONEY + PRESENT PARTICIPLE

e.g.     – We wasted the whole afternoon repairing our  washing machine.

– He has spent his money buying the useless things.

 

1.4.4 BE BUSY + PRESENT PARTICIPLE

e.g.     – Everyone is busy preparing the celebration.

– The rescuers were busy evacuating the victims.

 

1.5 It can replace a subordinate clause

1.5.1 in adverb clause of reason

e.g. – Since  he prepared himself well, he was  accepted in that big company.  =  Preparing  himself well, he was accepted in  that big company.

–        Because they are excellent employees, they are promoted to the  higher position. = Being  excellent employees, they  are  promoted to the higher position.

 

1.5.2 in adverb clause of time with WHILE as the conjunction when two actions happen together.

e.g. – While  the  demonstrators  were  displaying   many banners,  they were shouting some  strongly-worded protests. ( While displaying many banners,… )Displaying  many banners, the  demonstrators  were shouting some strongly-worded protests.

While  he  was showing his designs,  he  explained  the material he used.  ( While showing his designs, … )  =  Showing his designs, he explained the material  he used.

* when one action happens in the middle of another or in the longer action.

e.g.     – While he was working on computers, he found a strange thing on his data.  (  While working on computers, …)  =  Working on computers, he found a strange thing on his data.

* with AFTER when one action happened before the other (the perfect active participle is more common for this ).

e.g.     – After he had got an accident with his motorcycle twice, he promised not to ride it anymore.  = Having got an accident with his motorcycle twice, he promised not to ride it anymore.

After she has expressed all of what she felt, she is able to smile again.  = Having expressed all of what she felt, she is able to smile again.

 

1.5.3 in adjective clause :

* when the clause is in continuous tense ( the tense of the clause can be in present or past progressive ):

e.g.        – The  women  who are plucking the tea  leaves  have been working for two hours.  = The women plucking the tea leaves have been  work­ing  for  two hours.  (note : The clause can be changed into a noun phrase. It becomes The  tea  leaves-plucking women )

– We  enjoyed the flowers which were blooming in  our garden. = We  enjoyed  the flowers blooming  in  our  garden.    ( the noun phrase of the clause is the blooming flowers in our garden )

* when  the clause  expresses  general  truth, habitual or continuous action ( the tense of the clause can be in simple present or past ) :

e.g.        – The artists who have an exhibition twice a year in Netherlands come from all parts of the world. = The  artists having an exhibition twice a year  in Netherlands come from all parts of the world.

– The  minister of industry will visit  the  company which produces paper.  =  The minister of industry will visit the company producing paper . (The noun phrase of the clause is The paper producing company)

* when the clause expresses a wish ( the tense of the clause is always in simple one) :

e.g.        – The  accused  who wished the true justice  in  his trial  wasn’t  satisfied  to the  decision  of  the judge.  = The  accused  wishing the true justice  in  his trial  wasn’t  satisfied  to the  decision  of  the judge.

– The teachers encourage their students who hope  to get the first prize in that festival.  = The  teachers encourage their students  hoping  to get the first prize in that festival.

 

 2. THE PAST /  PASSIVE  PARTICIPLE

FORM : V3

USED :

2.1       as adjective

2.1.1 in noun phrase :

e.g.     –  baked potatoes ( = potatoes which are baked)

–  frightened child (= child who is frightened)

2.1.2   in  sentences ( * compare to the examples in present participle ) :

e.g.     – Those artificial flowers interests everyone who comes to this exhibition. They are interested (note : they refers to everyone)

– This kind of job bores me. I am really bored..

– Having a trip with friends amused us. We were amused.

2.2       to form the perfect tense

e.g.     –  The researcher has found a new species.

–  Every environmentalist has given their remark about the destroying factories.

–  The accusers will have  announced the  decision  before  he arrives.

2.3 in passive voice

e.g.     –  Our message has been received.

– The  building which was destroyed by  the  terrorists last year  belongs to the Queen.

2.4 to replace subordinate clause

2.4.1 in clause of reason

e.g.     –  Since we were warned not to pass through that road, we changed the route of our journey  = Warned not to pass through that road, we changed the route of our journey.

–  Because some satellites aren’t functioned anymore , they will be destroyed  = Not functioned anymore , some satellites will be destroyed.

2.4.2 in adjective clause

e.g.    – The victims of the earthquake who are being treated in this hospital are in critical condition  = The victims of the earthquake being treated in this hospital are in critical condition  ( * the tense of the clause can be in present or past continuous )

– The foreign explorers will observe some animals which are hunted by the local residents  = The foreign explorers will observe some animals hunted by the local residents  ( * the tense of the clause can be simple present or past )

 * if the clause expresses a future action, the to infinitive  is used :

– The minister’s statement which will be broadcasted should be censored first  = The minister’s statement  to be broadcasted should be censored first.  ( * the tense of the clause is in future tense )

– The schedule which will be announced should be checked again = The schedule to be announced should be checked again.

– Some farmers are still confused about how to select the best fertilizer which will be used for this kind of plant  = Some farmers are still confused about how to select the best fertilizer to be used for this kind of plan.

 

GRAMMAR

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