Chapter 9: Hortatory Text and coordinate connectors

BSE : 3.9/4.9/4/9.1

HORTATORY TEXT, DEGREES of COMPARISON and COORDINATORS

Basic Competence

 3.9 membedakan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan beberapa teks hortatory exposition lisan dan tulis dengan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait pandangan/pendapat mengenai topik yang hangat dibicarakan umum, argumentasi pendukung, serta saran, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya

4.9 teks hortatory exposition

4.9.1 menangkap makna secara kontekstual terkait fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks hortatory exposition lisan dan tulis, terkait isu aktual

4.9.2 menyusun teks hortatory exposition lisan dan tulis, terkait isu aktual, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan, secara benar dan sesuai konteks

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will learn about exposition texts (hortatory). Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structures used to make the arguments meaningful and readable.  Practicing how to compose a hortatory text is needed to get more understanding on its functional purpose and generic stucture.

Learning process

GENERAL INSTRUCTION : You must ensure that you understand the material step by step. At the end, there will be an evaluation to test your level of understanding on the material. When your level is above the passing score, you may continue to the next material. Before you ask for the evaluation, please ensure yourself that you have already mastered the whole material in this chapter.

BEFORE LEARNING

READ THIS SHORT PASSAGE:

Gadgets greatly influence the daily life of people – adults, teenagers and even children. They are so addictive that they will be stressed when the gadgets are not with them. Therefore, people had better control themselves before they get much dependent on gadgets. This is important because the dependence on gadgets may take them away from the real life. They will be drawn from the social life in which their presence is needed and appreciated. Losing the social life means dying for they won’t be able to adapt with the reality.

 HAVING READ THE PARAGRAPH, WHAT CAN YOU CONCLUDE OR GET?

WHAT IS THE GENRE OF THE PASSAGE?

 To make you more understand on this genre of the text, do activity one!

ACTIVITY ONE

Read the texts well, then do the exercises below!

Text ONE

Many people become more and more stressful nowadays. The stressful job, social ignorance, and the traffic jam they face every day are among the examples of factors influencing their emotion. When they cannot manage their emotion, they will create another stress for people around them. Consequently, their depression increases and it will become more difficult to coup with. No wonder that there have been some people attempting to commit suicide for they can’t stand bearing such depressive life. How about us? Do we belong to the depressed ones or the ones creating depression to others? Being depressed is so terrible, but it doesn’t mean that we surrender to such condition. There are always ways to face the stress. One of them is expressing what we feel through art, such as painting, dancing, composing songs, poems or short stories, and making handicrafts. Why is art advisable for expressing our emotion? Here are the reasons.

First, art both gives the beauty of the artwork and penetrates the soul of the person who creates it. Through art, we may express and release our emotion without being afraid to be hurt or hurt others. It is believed that art has such a greatly powerfull effect on our body that it can make our brain to be creative and stimulate it to think out of the box. This will enable us to find a solution on our problem, and support us not to easily give up. For example, someone who has much pressure on their job is trying to draw what causes them stressed. Having been satisfied on expressing their feeling, they analyze what they have drawn. They can find the reason why they become stressed and then make an effort to find the solution. We are always able to think clearly when our emotion is being controlled and we are in the peaceful mind. Artwork can give the positive energy to anyone who enjoys it as well. It gives relaxation when they are delighted in, for instance, singing. Hearing a song, they are moving their body following its rythm. This will release their stressful mind.

Secondly, artwork can function as a therapy because it will focus on our spiritual experience. Making artwork brings positive energy for our body for when we concentrate on what we are doing, we make image on our concious mind which commands our sub concious mind to print or manifest it. While doing it, we can feel as if we got “food” for our soul. The food is changed into such a powerful energy that peace and comfort will slowly conquer our heart. It’s like a meditation. Being able to control our emotion, we are developing our personality. Let’s take an example of dancing. While we are moving our body, our mind is focusing on and enjoying each movement we construct. This automatically expresses one by one what we are feeling and releases them. Being relaxed is what we get at the end, so is being free from depression.

In short, it is highly recommended to avoid a stressful life which can bring some diseases by releasing our stress through arts. We can choose kinds of artwork we like to have or just have a pleasure on them. For everyone who are not able to appreciate arts, they can choose any activity that can make them happy such as having sport or social activities. Doing what we like makes our life more qualified for ourselves and others.

(written by Hedwig Maria – inspired from “Intisari Maret 2019) 

  1. Write the main idea of each paragraph!
  2. Write your opinion on the arguments! You may add other arguments.
  3. Write the generic structure of the text!
  4. Write the meaning of the underlined words.
  5. Use them on your own sentences.

Text TWO

             When asked what major they may have after graduating from senior high school, many students are doubtful and give uncertain answer about it. This becomes worse when they even don’t know what they are learning for since their parents think that they are not mature enough to choose what they have to learn. Life is full of choices, so what will happen to these young men in the future life? Surely, it is impossible for them to be always dependent on their parents or someone else for the whole of their life. Therefore, they should be taught to have personal responsibility for their successful life.

The outcome of their life is a product of what has been decided. How their life is shaped mostly depends on themselves although there is an opinion that externals may contribute to shape it. There are two kinds of people, ones who are the creator mindset and ones who are the victims mindset. The creator mindset is empowered. They believe that what they are doing will give positive outcomes. On the other hand, the victims mindset is powerless. They think that their future life is determined by others. Thus, young people must be guided to know who they are – the creator mindset or the victim mindset -, and what they want to be so that they can prepare it now for the better life later.

Responsibility means the ability to respond wisely to the choices which will give us the desired outcomes or life experiences. Young people now prefer waiting passively for their fate that is determined by luck or others to creating their own destiny, taking action or seeking solution on their own problems. They are afraid to get risks which, according to their belief, will destroy their life forever. They like to play safe though they realize that their life is under controlled by others. Teaching teenagers to be responsible to their own life is neccessarily done by both parents and teachers because proactive personal responsibility can help them avoid troubles. For example, when using social media, teenagers who are responsible  will know what they have to do to protect or secure themselves from the negative exposures of the misleading information. Their ability to find solution and make decision which is psychologically beneficial will not only put them away from being stressful but also develop their self-esteem.

In short, it is advisable for parents as the first educators and teachers to guide teenagers to be responsible for their own life. Parents, who especially determine a lot what their children must do, should realize that their children are also learning about life. By letting them take their own choice, they lead them to the true path of their own life.

(written by Hedwig Maria)

I. Based on the text, we conclude that

  1. students still …
  2. young men’s life …
  3. personal responsibility …
  4. the contribution of externals …
  5. the positive outcomes …
  6. the better future life …
  7. the young people’s destiny …
  8. the fear of getting risks …
  9. the way to avoid troubles …
  10. parents’ control …

II. Find five other words which relate to each word below!

  1. Afraid
  2. Self-esteem
  3. Responsible
  4. Outcome
  5. Solution
  6. Secure
  7. Empower
  8. Mindset
  9. Beneficial
  10. Personal

BEFORE WRITING YOUR OWN ESSAY, YOU HAD BETTER LEARN SOME GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES TO MAKE YOUR SENTENCES MORE IMPRESSIVE AND CLEAR.

Now, you are to learn about Degrees of Comparison and Coordinate connectors. Read your grammar book to understand the patterns and how to apply them in meaningful sentences. Then, do the exercises below.

ACTIVITY TWO

  1. Two adjectives, adverbs, verbs, and nouns are provided for you. Make some sentences of comparison by using them.

e.g.    – dangerous / harmful

            What they did is as dangerous as it is harmful for others.

  • Seriously / well

The more seriously you train them, the better they will perform.

  • The new buildings / the old ones

The new buildings are facilitated more completely than they old ones were.

  • Think / speak

He thinks faster than he speaks. 

  1. Worriedly / nervously
  2. Organic waste / inorganic one
  3. Expensive / attractive
  4. Dance / sing
  5. The first chapter / other chapters
  6. Despicable 2 / Despicable 3
  7. Soft / delicate
  8. Boastful / arrogant
  9. Scream / shout
  10. Completely / perfectly
  11. The first contestant / all contestants
  12. Honest / responsible
  13. Write / speak
  14. Gallery / museum
  15. Fruits / vegetables

State whether the sentences are correct or incorrect!

  1. The more fluent the language learner speaks, the more easy his explanation is understood by others.
  2. I don’t feel so fine as I was.
  3. What a mall offers is more and more tempting.
  4. The number of the endangered species is more than the bred ones.
  5. The people having the wired house are more literate than the unwired ones.
  6. Paul Senior High School is the most favorite in this region.
  7. The employees in this huge company works as hard as those did twenty years ago.
  8. People choose what they buy through the online shopping wiser and wiser.
  9. The curiously you are, the more knowledge you will get.
  10. Some journalists often write less accurate than the facts say.
  11. The more provocative the title of the news, the more attractively it interests many people.
  12. Specializing on certain subject is more efficient than on various subjects.
  13. The trees around this kingdom are as old as the kingdom itself.
  14. What you argued was most acceptable among the others.
  15. The commander forbids the troops to talk about politics more strictly and more strictly.
  16. The more desperate you are, the harder you find the ways out.
  17. You must present your ideas more impressively than their ideas.
  18. His behavior is not so odd as what I saw last month.
  19. The more natural you show who you are, the more respect you will get.
  20. The top manager in this school looks less attentively to what happens daily than the previous one did.

ACTIVITY THREE

 Fill in the blank with both, either, or neither

  1. Students don’t like to learn grammar and vocabularies although they know that … are the foundations of learning a language.
  2. … candidate has special skill to show their ability in leadership. They showed it during the debate.
  3. Haven’t you … known what to do? Why are you still here?
  4. It’s annoying to hear both of them. … motivates us to do our best.
  5. The coach taught us two techniques that, I think, are helpful enough to beat the strong teams like them. Why not use the combination of … now?
  6. Is … of the judges easily influenced by the contestant’s sad story?
  7. These sentences are incorrect, so you may use … for your argument.
  8. Does … of the conclusions I gave help you find the solution? Please, try understanding the explanation again.
  9. Having breakfast with some bread or rice is good for getting energy. You can have …
  10. He knows how to dribble and to defend, but I cannot do ….
  11. The shopkeeper has taken another jacket for me, but … suits to what I want.
  12. No one can finish this difficult question. I think you can …
  13. … of you are told to meet the director right away!
  14. You said that you had asked the two office boys to prepare the meeting room, but I haven’t seen … of them.
  15. The two students are extremely … intelligent. They could solve the most complicated problem only for a few minutes while the others needed almost an hour.

Paraphrase the sentences below by both …and, not only …. but also, either … or, neither …nor, and….either, and neither, and so, or and ….too

  1. To reach their ambitious goal, people often ignore honesty and integrity.
  2. There are two alternatives for people without jobs to get a good one, improving skills or getting higher education.
  3. Conflicts in a country are often triggered by the different religion and mindset.
  4. Watching television too much or being super active in social media leads everyone to a depression.
  5. Many people still don’t care about the plastic waste due to their own business or their inability to process it.
  6. The prevention of developing diabetes can be done in two ways, making healthy choices and regular physical activity.
  7. The number of Sumatran Rhinos and Elephants is becoming lower and lower.
  8. Conservation is badly needed to protect the endangered animals from extinction and to breed them in their natural habitat.
  9. If you are allergic, it’s better to avoid it by identifying what causes it and when it usually occurs.
  10. Teenagers nowadays won’t choose to be teachers or advisors.
  11. The two princesses never show their high fashion style. They dress up simply.
  12. Woman on diet avoids fatty food or sugary drink.
  13. Dogs are as loyal as they are helpful.
  14. People in these regions are still traumatic on natural disasters like landslide or tsunami.
  15. The main roads and the highways are covered with thick snow.

 

  • THE REVIEW OF ACTIVITY TWO AND THREE

Choose the incorrect underlined word or phrase and make it correct!

  1. Not only the rescuers but the people are working to find the victims covered with the snow.
  2. Either the hard falling snow and the strongly blowing wind hinders the rescuers to search for the victims.
  3. Many people in this developing country have been linked to neither internet or other telecommunication tools.
  4. The more time we spend our time on social media, the more possible we are exposed by hoaxes.
  5. The headmaster must be able to know his students’ problem in learning and the teachers must either.
  6. The children with strange disease in this hospital both get physical and mental therapy.
  7. It’s difficult for people either to ask for apology or forgive others.
  8. Being honest reflects the nobility of our heart and so being responsible.
  9. People believe that giving is more better than taking.
  10. The losers will never both stop blaming and accusing others for their being lost.
  11. The ability to adapt the technological development becomes more urgent and more urgent.
  12. The ambitious people are neither satisfied to what they have got nor think about others.
  13. Speaking should be practiced regularly and writing too.
  14. The more fields Artificial Intelligence is applied to, the least workforce is needed.
  15. The new Empress goes out of the royal tradition most bravely by asking her prince and princess to have more social activities outside the kingdom.
  16. They want either to play tennis or golf.
  17. Although the two men are skillful in persuading people, I don’t want to use either ones.
  18. Everyone knows neither how to get the tickets nor to find the counter.
  19. The Golden Eagle symbolizes not only the greatness also the dignity of our country.
  20. We are annoyed to some job seekers who behave neither properly nor polite when interviewed this morning.

 

ACTIVITY FOUR

 TO GIVE YOU MORE UNDERSTANDING ABOUT WHAT A HORTATORY TEXT IS, CHOOSE ONE OF THE THESES BELOW AND DEVELOP IT BY USING THE GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURES YOU HAVE JUST LEARNT

  1. How to read and understand text should be taught to the elementary students.
  2. People had better learn to recycle and reuse plastic waste.
  3. It is recommended that schools include technology as one of the required subjects.

ENGLISH LITERATURE XI

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