Chapter 4: If-Conditional Clauses

BSE : 3.4/4.4/5/3.3

If Conditional Clauses, Subjunctives, and Report Text

Basic Competence

3.4 menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait pengandaian terjadinya/dilakukannya sesuatu yang tidak nyata pada saat ini dan pada waktu lampau, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan conditional: past dan past perfect)

4.4 menyusun teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait pengandaian terjadinya/dilakukannya sesuatu yang tidak nyata pada saat ini dan pada waktu lampau, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks    

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will review on If Conditional Clauses, Subjunctives and Report Text. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure used to write meaningful sentences concerning  If Conditional Clauses, and Subjunctives. Practicing writing sentences and reading comprehension on Report text is needed to enhance your understanding on the social function and grammatical structure.

Learning process

 GENERAL INSTRUCTION : You must ensure that you understand the material step by step. At the end, there will be an evaluation to test your level of understanding on the material. When your level is above the passing score, you may continue to the next material. Before you ask for the evaluation, please ensure yourself that you have already mastered the whole material in this chapter.

 

BEFORE LEARNING

Answer the questions below!

  1. What would you say if you were meeting Mr. President?
  2. Where would you spend your leisure time if you were in holiday now?
  3. What will you do if you get the position of a manager?
  4. Whom would you have chosen to dance if you had the chance?
  5. How may she have responded if you had shown up at her party?

Do you remember why the five numbers use different tenses?

To refresh your knowledge about it, click on: https://hedwigbooks.com/2018/07/26/if-conditional-sentences/

 

Activity One

Now, to get practices on it do these exercises below!

A. Here are some dialogs. Explain what the second person means.

  1. Teacher A: The result of Michael’s exam is perfect.

Teacher B: Surprising. If I had had known that he is clever, I would have chosen him for the national research competition last month.

  1. Alia: It’s difficult to contact him.

Bagus: Yes, I am worried about his condition. If we had trails to trace him, it would be easy to find him.

  1. Calista: She surrendered to her sickness and has just been gone.

Dimm: She would have survived if she had had someone supporting her during her sickness.

  1. Engie: There were 9 civilians killed during the people’s demonstration last week.

Frea: If they had obeyed the police’s order to keep the demonstration peaceful, there wouldn’t have been any victims.

  1. Gratia: The temperature can reach less than 15 degrees these days.

Heditto: If it were not bitterly cold, we would spend our holiday at the mountain as we had planned.

  1. Indra: Hei … you look much thinner.

Jane: Yes, I wouldn’t get this satisfying result if I hadn’t had discipline.

  1. Karen: The global economy is uncertain.

Lily: If the big countries collaborate to have the steady market, the world economy would be conducive for any country in the world.

  1. Max: No one seems to be interested in joining the quiz.

Nathan: If we offer more for the prize, they may be attracted to.

  1. Ory: Are you sure that Jakarta is your choice?

Putri: I am not sure, but I wish the pollution were not too dangerous for my asthma.

  1. Quint: So, how about your reunion last Saturday?

Randy: I wished I had never been there.

  1. Sein: It’s quite annoying to see garbage everywhere.

Tristan: I wish everyone were responsible to the cleanliness of this place.

  1. Ulin: His speech is sickening. It is full of lies.

Vena: I agree. I would rather someone stopped him now.

  1. Wina: The games are bad influence to the children’s mental development.

Xeen: I wish many parents realized about it.

  1. Risang: Didn’t you get some good shots on that event?

Obri: I wished I had had enough memory for my camera.

  1. Melisa: The crash was so terrible that it will stay longer in my memory.

Rima: I would rather I hadn’t seen about it.

 

B. Give two or more proper main clauses for the provided If Conditional clauses!

  1. If the President chose me as one of the ministers, …
  2. If the people hadn’t been easily provoked by hoaxes, …
  3. If the police hadn’t been able to catch the terrorists, …
  4. If China and USA collaborated in creating a conducive market globally, …
  5. If all countries realized that the earth is beginning to collapse, …
  6. If young people were aware of the importance of literacy, …
  7. If Soekarno hadn’t proclaimed our independence, …
  8. It there hadn’t been industrial revolution on mass production, …
  9. If we hadn’t been colonized for almost 300 years, …
  10. If the government didn’t invite the foreign investors, …

Activity Two

For the following activity, see this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LkBOAvzWNfM

Then, with your own sentences, re-explain the types of coffee.

Activity Three

Read this following article.

Types of Coffee Makers

Published June 21, 2016

There are many ways to produce a flavorful, well-balanced cup of coffee or espresso at home. Here are some of the favorite types of coffee makers.

The Basics of Making Coffee

Coffee is a complex bean, containing more than 1,000 volatile flavor and aroma compounds. According to experts, the best compounds are released when brewed at temperatures between 195 and 205 degrees. Then there’s the matter of the rate of extraction. The most aromatic and best tasting compounds are generally released first, so coffee that’s brewed too slowly or at too-hot temperatures can suffer from over-extraction when the harsher and more bitter flavors are released. If brewed too quickly or with water that isn’t hot enough, it can suffer from under-extraction where it’s weak and sour-tasting. An optimum extraction rate is about 6 to 8 minutes, depending on the method. (Cold-brew methods, in which ground coffee is combined with cold or room-temperature water, take longer—at least 8 hours and up to several days.)

Automatic Coffee Makers

You can start with the best beans and the best coffee maker, but those choices won’t matter if you don’t also use the right ratio of coffee to water (several of the models we tested call for insufficient coffee—or, even worse, simply have baskets too small to hold enough ground coffee for the amount of water its tank can hold). For the ideal cup, the Specialty Coffee Association of America recommends 9 to 11 grams (about 2 tablespoons of medium-grind coffee) per 6 ounces of water.

Many coffee drinkers will be pleased with the excellent performance of the Bonavita, but if you want to invest in the best machine money can buy, the Technivorm might be for you.

  • Brewing Performance: The Technivorm is robotic, reaching the same optimal time and temperature numbers every single time you brew a pot. The Bonavita wavers in and out of the ideal temperature zone a bit more.
  • Heating Element: Though its exterior parts are made from inexpensive lightweight plastic (meant to be replaceable), the Technivorm’s nervous system is built to last. Specifically, its heating element is made of expensive, highly conductive copper—a metal that can reach a higher temperature more quickly than can aluminum, which is what Bonavita (and most other coffee maker manufacturers) uses.
  • Saturation of Grounds: The new Technivorm KBGT and the older Technivorm KBT each have a hold-back function that slows or stops the flow of coffee into the carafe, steeping the grounds longer. (On the old model, this function is manually controlled; on the new model, it automatically waits about 30 seconds.) The Bonavita does not have this function, though it’s equipped with a showerhead that helps saturate the grounds evenly.
  • Carafe Lid: The Technivorm’s carafe features a convenient brew-through lid; the Bonavita requires you to remove the brew basket and screw on a separate lid to keep coffee hot.
  • Construction: The Technivorm is hand-built in the Netherlands. The Bonavita is machine-built in China from a German design.
  • Length of Warranty: Technivorm: five years; Bonavita: two years.

 

Cold Brew Coffee Makers

Caffeine nerds have long touted the advantages of brewing coffee with cold water. The process, which calls for steeping ground coffee in cold water for several hours (or overnight), is largely hands-off; produces a smoother, less acidic brew than does conventional hot-water extraction; and yields a strong concentrate that can be stored in the refrigerator and diluted to taste with hot or cold water (or poured over ice) to make instant hot or iced coffee.

With just a few large plastic parts, a stable, widemouthed glass carafe with an easy-to-seal lid, and straightforward instructions, this classic brewer was simple to use and clean up and yielded a generous amount of “rich,” “chocolaty,” “full-flavored” concentrate that still tasted good after two weeks in the refrigerator.

Espresso Machines

Espresso machines range in price from well under $100 for basic machines to elaborate, glossy marvels that can set you back as much as $8,000—it can be a confusing process to find the best one for your investment. First and foremost, an espresso machine should make espresso as good as a barista can produce, and you should be able to customize the brew strength and size to your taste. Second, the machine must be easy to use and relatively straightforward to maintain. Brewing a drink or two should not make much of a mess, take too long, or require a discouraging amount of fuss for a busy weekday morning.

Fully Automatic Espresso Machine

This compact, well-made machine consistently produced excellent espresso at the push of a button and readily let us adjust the flavor, temperature, and strength of a shot. The thoughtfully designed controls and a clear display that showed what was happening made it simple to brew espresso or froth milk without consulting the manual.

Hands-On Espresso Machine

This handsome machine is perfect if you want the convenience of built-in grinding and automatic weighing of coffee, as well as push-button brewing, but you don’t mind some hands-on work. You must learn to tamp properly and move the porta filter of grounds from the grinder to the brewing position. A simple gauge provides excellent feedback, quickly teaching you to dial in the best grind setting and tamping pressure.

(taken from: https://www.cooksillustrated.com/articles/292-types-of-coffee-makers)

Tell in one sentence what you can conclude about:

  1. The content of coffee
  2. Brewing coffee
  3. The ratio of coffee to water
  4. The Technivorm product
  5. Iced coffee
  6. The use of espresso machine
  7. The advantage of fully automatic Espresso machine

 

VOCABULARY PRACTICE

Guess the word through its meaning!

  1. S_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _n     = The degree or extent to which something is dissolved or absorbed compared with the maximum possible, usually expressed as a percentage
  2. W_ _ _ _ _ _y     = A written guarantee, issued to the purchaser of an article by its manufacturer, promising to repair or replace it if necessary within a specified period of time.
  3. D_ _ _ _e     = Make (a liquid) thinner or weaker by adding water or another solvent to it
  4. R_ _ _ _ _ _ _d     = Put forward (someone or something) with approval as being suitable for a particular purpose or role.
  5. E_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _n     = The action of extracting something, especially using effort or force.
  6. C_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _e      = A thing that contributes to an easy and effortless way of life.
  7. G_ _ _e      = An instrument that measures and gives a visual display of the amount, level, or contents of something.
  8. C_ _ _ _ _ _ _e      = Modify (something) to suit a particular individual or task.
  9. E_ _ _ _ _ _ _e      = Develop or present (a theory, policy, or system) in further detail
  10. C_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _e      = Having the property of conducting something (especially heat or electricity)
  11. L_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _t      = Of thin material or build and weighing less than average
  12. V_ _ _ _ _ _e      = (of a substance) easily evaporated at normal temperatures
  13. A_ _ _ _ _ _c      = Having a pleasant and distinctive smell
  14. I_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _t      = Not enough; inadequate.
  15. A_ _ _ _c     = Sharp-tasting or sour
  16. G_ _ _ _ _ _s      = (of a thing) larger or more plentiful than is usual or necessary.
  17. C_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _e      = A substance made by removing or reducing the diluting agent; a concentrated form of something.
  18. C_ _ _ _ _t      = Having all the necessary components or features neatly fitted into a small space.
  19. F_ _ _ _ _ _k      = Information about reactions to a product, a person’s performance of a task, etc. which is used as a basis for improvement.
  20. F_ _ _h      = Impure matter that rises to the surface of liquid.

(source: https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/)

 

IF YOU WANT TO PRACTICE MORE ON REPORT TEXTS, CLICK ON: https://hedwigbooks.com/2019/07/06/report-texts/

Closing

TO REVIEW ALL MATERIALS,

  1. mention the types of If-Conditional clauses with their function and structure
  2. mention the types of Subjunctives with their function and structure
  3. mention the social function and generic structure of Report texts

CHECK WHETHER YOU HAVE UNDERSTOOD THE MATERIALS!

SELF-REFLECTION ON THE MASTERY OF MATERIALS

No Questions Yes No
1. Can you recognize types of If-Conditional Clause?
2. Can you identify Subjunctives?
3. Can you identify a Report text?

 

ENGLISH LITERATURE XII 

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