BSE : 3.8/4.8/4/8.1
CHAPTER 8: GIVING EXAMPLES AND PASSIVE FORMS
3.8 menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait pemberian contoh, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan for example, such as)
4.8 menyusun teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait pemberian contoh, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks
In this chapter, you will learn how to give examples. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure used to make the description meaningful. Practicing how to compose a dialogue or monologue is needed to enhance your understanding on the social function and the text structure of that kind of promotion.
GENERAL INSTRUCTION : You must ensure that you understand the material step by step. At the end, there will be an evaluation to test your level of understanding on the material. When your level is above the passing score, you may continue to the next material. Before you ask for the evaluation, please ensure yourself that you have already mastered the whole material in this chapter.
Read the sentences below and tell what the underlined phrases show:
- Birds are classified into some groups. One of the groups is based on the fly-weight, including: The Helenas humming bird, found in Cuba, which is so tiny that it often gets caught in spiders’ web and The trumpeter swan which is one of the heaviest birds to fly with a weight of up to 17.2 kg (32lbs)
- In an unusually hot and humid day, it is possible for us to undergo heat exhaustion. Fluid lost through perspiration can lead to dehydration. The typical examples of the symptoms are chills, fatique, lightheadedness, thirst, nausea, confusion, feeling faint, weakness and headache.
- There are so many wonderful structures in the world. My favorite example is The Great Pyramid of Cheops built between 4 and 3 thousands years BC. It took 100,000 men 20 years to construct using 2,300,000 huge stone blocks which weighed an average of 2 tons each.
- Women who diet often eat fewer meals to cut calories. That decreases movement through the gut. When nothing moves, you can’t pass stool. So, the typical example of avoiding the constipation is having breakfast.
- To measure the weather, we have Barometer measuring air pressure, Thermometer measuring degrees of heat and coldness, and Thermograph recording air temperature among other examples.
Make a list of giving example-phrases and write the pattern of how to use them in sentences.
Read the passages, underline the sentences containing phrases of example and answer some questions about them!
No student of a foreign language needs to be told that grammar is complex. By changing word sequences and by adding a range of auxiliary verbs and suffixes, we are able to communicate tiny variations in meaning. We can turn a statement into a question, state whether an action has taken place or is soon to take place, and perform many other word tricks to convey subtle differences in meaning. Nor is this complexity inherent to the English language. All languages, even those of so-called ‘primitive’ tribes have clever grammatical components. The Cherokee pronoun system, for example, can distinguish between ‘you and I’, ‘several other people and I’ and ‘you, another person and I’. In English, all these meanings are summed up in the one, crude pronoun ‘we’. Grammar is universal and plays a part in every language, no matter how widespread it is. So the question which has baffled many linguists is – who created grammar?
(taken from: https://www.examenglish.com/TOEFL/TOEFL_reading1.htm)
- What is the content of this passage?
- Based on the explanation given in the passage, do you think that learning grammar is important?
Life on Earth started with single-celled bacteria about 4 billion years ago. The earliest life forms could not move under their own power. The Gabon fossils dated to the Paleoproterozoic Era are about 1.5 billion years older than the previous earliest evidence of organism motility.
Abderrazak El Albani, a scientist with the University of Poitiers in France, led the team in Gabon. The shale deposit there has proven to be a treasure for the study of ancient life. Several years ago, Albani and his team discovered it held the oldest fossils know of multicellular animals.
“What matters here is their astonishing complexity and diversity in shape and size, and likely in terms of metabolic, developmental and behavioral patterns, including the just-discovered earliest evidence of motility, at least for certain among them,” Albani said.
- What can you conclude from the first paragraph?
- What is meant by “a treasure” in the second paragraph?
- “What matters here is their astonishing…” (p.3) What does “their” refer to?
According to gang investigators, the gang leaders communicate orders through letters. Where mail is monitored they may use a code–for instance, making every 12th word of a seemingly benign letter significant. They use visits, they put messages into their artwork and in some states they use the telephone.
Paraphrase the sentences in this passage!
Prison gangs operating in Texas and Florida include Neta, the Texas Syndicate, the Aztecs, the Mexican Mafia, the New Black Panthers, the Black Guerrilla Family, Mandingo Warriors, Aryan Brotherhood, La Nuestra Familia, the Aryan Circle and the White Knights. Some of these gangs have alliances, and some are mortal enemies. Many on this list originated in California over the decades, some of them (such as the Texas Syndicate) to protect members from the other gangs. In addition, street gangs such as the Crips and Bloods and traditional racial-hate groups such as the Ku Klux Klan also operate in the prisons.
What prisoners may not realize is that because the gangs are monitored by prison authorities the law-enforcement community is becoming very sophisticated about the gangs. “Sixty percent of what we learn about what is going on in the city streets of Florida” is garnered in prison and not from observing the streets, says Godwin.
What information can you get from this short passage?
Punctuation is important in making sentences with examples. Now, learn the examples below!
- Traditionally, software applications such as office suites are sold as packages that are installed and reside on the user’s computer.
- Niche or specialized applications (such as hospital billing systems) are designed for and marketed to a particular industry.
- In-house applications are developed by program-mers within a business or other institution for their own use. Examples might include employee training aids or a Web-based product catalog.
- An application suite is a set of programs designed to be used together and marketed as a single package. For example, a typical office suite might include word processing, spreadsheet, database, personal information manager, and e-mail programs.
- An application suite such as microsoft Office makes it easier to, for example, launch a Web browser from a link within a word processing document or embed a spreadsheet in the document.
(examples from 1 to 5 are taken from https://www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/135785/Henderson_-_Encyclopedia_of_Computer_Science_and_Technology.pdf)
6. Major changes in human life have been associated with major technological changes, such as the “food-producing revolution,” the “urban revolution,” and the “industrial revolution” and its modern continuations; even the evolution of biologically modern man has been influenced by innovations in tool using.
7. Technology in its broad meaning connotes the practical arts. These arts range from hunting, fishing, gathering, agriculture, animal husbandry, and mining through manufacturing, construction, transportation, provision of food, power, heat, light, etc., to means of communication, medicine, and military technology.
8. Recently, the impression that modern technology is primarily applied science has led to the use of such phrases as “science,” “science policy,” and “science and society” to refer to both the sciences and the practical arts.
9. This is an extremely significant fact for students of technology; however, most descriptions of technologies do not include quantitative information unless that happens to be an explicit part of the practitioner’s traditions —as, for example, in much modern food preparation and in engineering.
10. This will affect, for example, the amount of moving and carrying she does, the extent to which she can economize time by carrying out activities such as forming pots while others are drying or being fired, how close she can come to carrying out processes on the most efficient “batch” scale, etc.
(Examples form 6 to 10 are taken from https://www.encyclopedia.com/science-and-technology/technology/technology-terms-and-concepts/technology#A)
Now, here is the exercise how to use the correct punctuation!
Correct the sentences below!
- A number of wild animals in Indonesia are facing extinction. For example the Sumatran tiger males has average length around 230 cm from muzzle to the end of tail.
- An active volcano in Java, like Merapi has erupted regularly since 1548.
- Balak Beach, Lampung, for instance has most rocks and corals on it. The color of them is match with beautiful clean water.
- Indonesia is rich of unique kinds of food for example, Surabi, Gudeg, Rujak Petis, and cendol.
- When you visit Indonesia, you can enjoy many unique traditions; For example, Debus, Ngaben and Cutting finger.
- Other than the official language, Indonesia has so many languages; For example, Javanese, Balinese, Madurese, Buginese are practically used in either in their own region or other region where they live.
- Famous people e.g., Confucius, Edmund Halley, Sir Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin have contributed much on the people’s life.
- The inventors in Physics, such as Albert Einstein, had ever failed in their life.
- As technology on aviation has improved well, people choose air transportation most to travel, such as Turboprop, Very light jet, Business jet, and Regional jet.
- Wealthy people prefer air transportation like Narrow body aircraft.
- Students may have activities outside the school for instance, they may join social organization, but they aren’t allowed to join political one.
- Generating electricity can be done in some ways including trapping and storing sun in solar panel, siting windmills where the wind blows and piping up the hot water and steam trapped in the earth.
- There are three main types of clouds including, cirrus, Cumulus, and Stratus.
- A boil occurs when bacteria, the common example is Staphylococcus aureus invade a hair follicle in the skin, travel down the follicle, and form a collection of infection pus at the base. So, applying an antibacterial, such as Neosporin, helps kill off any bacterium that is inside the boil or the skin.
- Women are often attacked by diarrhoea. Though it usually lasts only three days, it can make them feel limp and lousy. Therefore, to get the bowel function well back to normal you can do as follows avoiding milk, eating lightly, drinking as much as you can, and trying chicken stock.
Now, try practicing composing a short paragraph with three things to be clarified by giving examples. Before writing, you had better get some knowledge by reading a lot.
To support your ability in writing, surely you need understanding of good grammar. Here are the exercises of some passive forms.
Exercise 1: Passive Voice
Change the active sentences into the passive ones or vice versa!
- What we planned yesterday is being discussed.
- It was understood why the people sent their complaint to this mall.
- We have already explained the people here the importance of keeping their environment clean.
- The questions which made the students confused will be revised.
- Were you given the information about the next activities?
- Old generation still believes that gadgets give more disadvantages than advantages.
- Spreading hoaxes have to be stopped for the sake of this country’s unity.
- Before the decision was made, I had thought about the risks several times.
- Everyone will be entertained by what we are going to perform.
- When you visited there, were the refugees given enough food and medical treatment?
- The abnormal behavior which the children have shown lately is being observed by some psychiatrists.
- Since eating fast food becomes young people’s life style now, parents are required to provide them with healthy food for their future healthy life.
- Teenagers are always expected not to be addicted on gadgets.
- Stephen Hawking’s life inspires us to do more and more despite his physical disabilities.
- The president is going to help many poor students to finish their studies.
Make Passive sentences with these verbs. You may use a verb more than once but, of course, in different sentences.
Reveal, resolve, help, hunt, suspect, coat, rule, infect, cause, hold, hide, advise, bind, direct, endanger, forbid, gain, judge, knock, leave, manage, number, obsess, pay, qualify, send, terminate, use, ventilate, warn, yield, zoom
Exercise 2: Passive Causative
Paraphrase the sentences below!
- My parents always have snap judgement avoided.
- He made the rooms in this hotel decorated ethnically.
- The owner of the museum has made everything displayed in high technology.
- Our boss is getting the customers to try all of the new items in his mall.
- That rich woman is making her accessories beautified with gold.
- The director will have the staff trained how to serve their clients hospitably.
- Some parents were getting their children motivated to be more creative when the director of the director of this foundation passed through the hall.
- The President made all of the survivors treated by the professional doctors.
- My father, the director of this company, never gets the local authorities bribed to deal with them.
- The teacher is having the animals and plants classified based on their habitat.
- The top manager has been getting the administration business audited for a week.
- I had some regulations revised due to the inconvenient impact on the students.
- He should make all of the dishes tasted before being served to the guests.
- Does he often have his activities recorded and uploaded to the internet?
- I have to get my pictures with my previous lovers burnt to avoid the misunderstanding between me and my fiancé.
Exercise 3: Passive Participle
Choose a verb in the box to fill in the blank while changing it into the correct form!
- There has been a heart … to the patient with myocarditis in 10 minutes.
- We may not enter the emergency room to see our friend … by a venomous snake.
- The house … by the high wall turns out to be the place of the illegally … drugs and beverages
- The government warn the people not to consume the … water.
- Many girls are interested in her pictures mostly … abroad.
- A lot of couples … with this method seem to have better relationship.
- I lose my files … for my presentation tomorrow.
- Some traditional markets … now will become one of the tourism objects.
- The bamboo trees … artistically gives different atmosphere and scenic look to this village.
- The two books … are so thick that I am getting tired of reading them.
- Some old houses … before the first world war still stand firmly and now are used for restaurant … in such a way that people can feel the atmosphere of being in war.
- The students of modelling are learning how to design their own clothes … and … in the annual fashion show.
- Many young parents feel unable to control the children’s emotion … by throwing anything or crying all day long.
- The diseases … by therapist are not usually the chronic ones.
- The supplement drink … every day may influence the young teenagers’ health.
Then, change the passive participle in each sentence into adjective clause!
Exercise 4: Review
Change the verb in the bracket into the correct form!
- The songs (compose) by those children are wonderful enough. They (record) already and (launch) next month.
- The national documents (keep) in this museum (not take) care of carefully. Some of them (damage) by book louse.
- The host is getting all the dishes (enjoy) because they (make) in accordance to the guests’ appetite.
- The questions (give) by the interviewers made me nervous. Fortunately, they (answer) correctly and smoothly.
- The teacher will make this paper (revise) again because there are still many sentences (type) wrongly.
- What was happening last night (spread) through the social media so quickly that the police make it (stop).
- Many parents have tried to get their children (free) from their gadget, but they (addict) already.
- There have been many young people (award) for their concern on reducing the plastic waste. They (deserve) to get it due to their consistency on what they do.
- Parents hope to have the online games (play) by a lot of teenagers, even adults, (remove) from the internet.
- Game programmers often (blame) for their work get the purpose of gaming (understand) by parents.
- Our proposal (approve) by the head master (multiply) and (send) to some schools by Saturday.
- The program (activate) now looks helpful enough for the students to learn some subjects (teach) interactively.
- The president makes the corruptors usually (illustrate) as a mouse with a tie not only (jail) but also (make) them poor.
- Controlling emotion through yoga (learn) by many workers (press) by their work at present.
- Although he has made his daughter (win) in the beauty contest by bribing the judges, she (not qualify) by her ability and intelligence.
Correct the sentences below!
- The historians collected the results of their research on a book are all above 70 years old.
- Didn’t the event organizer told not to hire those dancers?
- Practicing speaking a new language must done regularly to get the best improvement.
- The topic gives for the next seminar is too broad for a day seminar.
- The person in charge got his members treat well during the event.
- I am getting my burger strewing with much cheese.
- The students’ ability to comprehend a text is tested now.
- No one allowed to enter the building without an identity card.
- The new approach introduces to the employees to enhance their skill.
- What was write on this book is true and motivates me much.
- How did they get their task finish so fast?
- We don’t really understand the statement stating by our leader.
- The difficult method have been simplified by the most competent person.
- Don’t buy the things offering by someone you don’t know well.
- It’s necessary to have our job evaluate for the better result.
Practicing a lot can enhance your skills in English, therefore you are advised to present to the class a certain topic to tell of course with some examples.