NOUN AND PRONOUN
In general, there are four kinds of noun :
- Common noun : e.g. dog, table, tree, man, … etc.
- Proper noun : e.g. Andi, Surabaya, Italy, … etc.
- Abstract noun : e.g. English, sadness, science, …etc.
- Collective noun : e.g. Crowd, group, audience, … etc.
1.1. Countable Noun
Regular plural noun forming :
1.1.1 Most nouns have -s at the end of the singular form :
1.1.2 If the singular form ends in s, x , z , ch or sh, the plural is formed by adding -es to the singular
1.1.3. The plural is formed by changing y to –ies, if the singular form ends in y preceded by a consonant.
But if y is preceded by a vowel, there is only -s ending :
1.1.4. The plural is added by -es, if the singular form ends in O preceded by a consonant
Some exceptions (because they are not from English)
But if o is preceded by a vowel, the plural is added by -s :
1.1.5. Most words end in f are added by -s
Only some of them are changed into V + -es
1.1.6. Compound nouns are added by -s or -es to the singular to form the plural :
But hyphenated compound nouns are added by -s or -es to the first word of the combination
1.1.7. Vowel change
1.1.8. Many nouns from other languages are added by -s or -es to the singular, but here are some exceptions :
But there are some that are optional
|curriculums or curricula
formulas or formulae
indexes or indices
memorandums or memoranda
syllabuses or syllabi
1.1.9. The plural forms which have no singular one are pants, scissors, shoes, shorts, trousers, … etc.
The verb for these Nouns is in plural too.
e.g. – Scissors are used for cutting.
– There were old trousers in the cupboard..
But if the noun is preceded by the measure of quality, the agreement of the verb depends on the number of it.
e.g. – A pair of scissors is in his bag.
Some pairs of scissors are on my table ( = some scissors are on my table)
1.1.10. Nouns that are always singular (mostly from the abstract one) are advice, baggage, furniture, information, knowledge, measles, news, rubbish, … etc.
The verb for these Nouns are always singular.
e.g. – There is some important news that you should hear right now.
– His new furniture has been sent.
1.1.11. Name of science is singular, if it refers to an area of study, such as mathematics, economics, statistics, physics, … etc.
e.g. – Mathematics is my favorite lesson.
– Statistics becomes more and more important.
But if it refers to components / parts of an activity or condition, it is plural :
e.g. – The statistics of the population growth in the world are amazing.
– My mathematics are always bad.
1.1.12. A few nouns are used both as a singular and a plural noun, like deer, sheep, fish, species, series, trout, … etc.
e.g. A : We catch only a few fish
B : It’s all right. A few fish are enough for three of us.
1.2. Uncountable Noun
Uncountable Noun is always singular.
To express the quantity, use some certain words (measures of quantity) such as : cup, slice, piece, bottles, bar, … etc.
e.g. – I need some pieces of paper to type this report.
– He bought a bottle of milk.
1.3. The position of noun in noun phrase
1.3.1. As adjective :
126.96.36.199. adjunct or attributive noun :
e.g. stone chair, mail box, …etc. (* The bold word is noun but it functions as adjective)
Some of the possible meanings of the relation between the first word and the second one :
188.8.131.52. The first noun gives the place where the second comes / happens / is found / used :
e.g. a newspaper article Jakarta people
garden party a table lamp
184.108.40.206. The first noun gives the time when the second happens / is meant to be used :
e.g. a day dream morning coffee
midnight news Sunday paper
220.127.116.11. The first noun says what the second consists or is made of:
e.g. an iron bridge a puzzle magazine
cheese stick hydrogen bomb
18.104.22.168. The first noun says something about the function, job or role of the second :
e.g. a conference room the telephone bill
a steam engine holiday plans
a shoe shop a police chief
22.214.171.124. The second noun refers to an activity and the first noun is the object of the verb that describes that activity :
e.g. adult education (= the education for adult )
an animal training (= the training for animals)
126.96.36.199. The second noun refers to a part or section of the first :
e.g. the car door the river bank
violin strings the mountain slope
1.3.2 appositive noun (additional explanation) :
e.g. – Mr. Andi, a director of this company, always comes early.
-The most beautiful island in our country, Bali, is visited by many tourists from other countries every year.
1.3.3. with possessive (possessive case) :
e.g. her test, their house, Mr. Totok’s wife, my dog’s food ..etc.
1.4. The Position of Noun in a sentence
1.4.1. as subject :
e.g. – Rendy is the cleverest in our class.
-The difficult problem in teenagers, love, should be handled carefully.
1.4.2. as object
188.8.131.52 of a verb :
e.g. – I like dogs.
-The bank manager gave us the new information.
IO = us DO = the new information
DO = Direct Object
IO = Indirect Object
184.108.40.206. as object of preposition :
e.g. – She is talking to the teacher.
-He always thinks about his parents.
My best friend bought some novels for my sister.
DO = some novels IO= my sister
220.127.116.11. as a subject complement:
e.g. – That is our new teacher, Miss. Ernest.
-It has been our house since two years ago.
- P R O N O U N
|Subject||Object||Poss. Adj.||Poss. Pro.||Reflexive Pronoun|
2.1 THE USE OF PRONOUN IN A SENTENCE
2.1.1 as subject :
e.g. Mr. Totok is giving a speech. He is my husband.
My sister is fond of flowers. They are blooming now.
2.1.2. as object :
e.g. Don’t you remember me?
There are some poor children. We have to take care of them with love.
There are three object positions in a sentence :
18.104.22.168. S + V + DO + to + IO
The verbs are : announce, describe, explain, introduce, mention, prove, repeat, report, say, speak, suggest.
e.g. The teacher has explained the difficult unit to us.
DO = the difficult unit IO = us
Mr. Totok will introduce his wife to them.
DO = his wife IO = them
22.214.171.124. S + V + DO + for + IO
The verbs are : answer, cash, change, close, open, pronounce, prescribe.
e.g. I will answer the questions for you
DO = the questions IO = you
Shall I close the window for you?
DO = the window IO = you
126.96.36.199. S + V + IO + DO
The Verbs are : ask, cost, save, charge, and wish.
e.g. The house costs me one hundred millions.
IO = me DO = one hundred millions
He asks us some difficult questions.
IO = us DO = some difficult questions
Some verbs which can be used in two patterns ( look 188.8.131.52 and 184.108.40.206) : bring, give, lend, pass, read, send, sell , show, take, teach, tell, write.
e.g. My uncle gave me some interesting books.
My uncle gave some interesting books to me.
DO = some interesting books IO = me
Some verbs which can be used in two patterns ( look 2 ) : buy, do, find, get, make.
e.g. – He bought me a bunch of flowers.
IO = me DO = a bunch of flowers
He bought a bunch of flowers for me.
DO = a bunch of flowers IO = me
2.1.3. as object of preposition.
Some prepositions such as : to, by, for, with, before, after, about, from, near, under, … etc.
e.g. – He said that he would go with me.
-I want to sit near him.
2.1.4. as possessive adjective :
e.g. – The professor is doing a biology experiment. His experiment will be useful for medical treatment.
-The students are trying to prove the theory by making an experiment. Their results will be sent to the festival.
2.5. as possessive pronoun:
e.g. – My answer is as perfect as hers.
-Her argument is not relevant to the topic, but his can make everyone realize what they should do.
2.6. as reflexive and emphasizing pronoun :
2.6.1. Reflexive pronoun for oneself :
e.g. – The residents of this complex build the small recreation park near their houses for themselves. (It is not open for public)
-Look ! That small bird is trying to reach the pea for itself. (There’s no other bird around)
-The man bought some fruit for himself (because he has no one in his house) or The man bought himself some fruit.
2.6.2. Reflexive pronoun to oneself :
e.g. – Don’t always laugh at yourself whenever you make a mistake!
-We must look at ourselves before criticizing someone else.
2.6.3. Reflexive pronoun which shows being without accompaniment or being alone :
e.g. – I don’t like to pass through the cemetery by myself.
-She is not able to walk by herself after she got an accident.
2.6.4. Emphasizing pronoun on subject :
e.g. – The headmaster will handle this problem himself or The headmaster himself will handle this problem.
-Miss. Lina wants to talk to you herself or Miss. Lina herself wants to talk to you.
2.6.5. Emphasizing pronoun on object :
e.g. – I saw those strange animals themselves.
-The spy will send the message to the Prime Minister himself.
- INDEFINITE PRONOUN
3.1 Everyone/everybody and everything
Everyone/everybody means all (the) people but it is followed by singular verb.
e.g. – Everyone is ready (= All the people are ready)
-Everybody knows it (= All the people know it)
Everything means all (the) things and it is followed by singular verb too.
e.g. – Everything has been run out (= All the things have …)
-Everything was in order (= All the things were …)
3.2. someone/somebody, something, anyone/anybody, anything, no one/ nobody, nothing, someone/somebody, anyone/anybody, no one/nobody can be possessive :
e.g. – This is somebody’s passport.
-I need no one’s help.
like everyone/everybody, they have a singular meaning and take a singular verb but the personal pronoun is formally THEY :
e.g. – Nobody cares of this problem. They have their own
-Has anyone left their luggage in the safe place?
However, with something, anything, nothing and everything, we use IT for the personal pronoun.
e.g. – Something goes wrong and we aren’t able to detect it.
-I don’t know where everything is. It may be somewhere.
3.3 ELSE can be placed after someone/anybody/nothing … etc. and also the adverb somewhere, anywhere, everywhere and nowhere.
e.g. – I’m afraid I can’t help you now. Ask someone else (= some other person)
-There won’t be anybody else here. (= any other person)
-You may ask to everyone else for sure. (= every other person)
-You will find no one else in my apartment. (= no other person)
-It is enough. We don’t need anything else. (= any other thing)
-Don’t you want to try somewhere else ? (= in/at/to some other place)