Chapter 1: Clause of Result

BSE : 3.1/4.1/5/1.1

Clause of result and Analytical Exposition Texts

Basic Competence

3.1 menerapkan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait hubungan sebab akibat, sesuai dengan konteks penggunaannya. (Perhatikan unsur kebahasaan such that; so that)

 4.1 menyusun teks interaksi transaksional lisan dan tulis yang melibatkan tindakan memberi dan meminta informasi terkait hubungan sebab akibat, dengan memperhatikan fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang benar dan sesuai konteks   

Learning purpose

In this chapter, you will learn about CLAUSE OF RESULT and review on ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION TEXT. Surely, you will have to know the proper grammatical structure used to make meaningful sentences.  Practicing applying the material is needed to enhance your understanding on the social function and the structure of the clause.



First paragraph.

Due to the climate change, it has been so hot recently that people feel tired easily after doing some physical activities. They always grumble on such hot days and use air conditioners to get themselves cool. However, they are too selfish. They don’t realize that people, as human, are the atmosphere destroyers. They release such a huge amount of dangerous gas to the air every day that it damages the ozone layer. Only do a few countries begin to reduce their gas emission, while the others deny polluting the air.

Second paragraph.

The high demand of social life causes young people work so hard that they ignore the importance of having enough sleep. The fatal effect of lacking of sleep is the brain damage. Most of them still haven’t been aware of this, so they never consider it a big problem.




Analyze again the three underlined sentences above. Decide which shows the emphasis and which is the effect.

Let the teacher check your answers.


You have learnt about Clause of Result before. To review it, open this link:

Find the Adverbial Clauses, then you can do the exercises below for practicing!

2.1   Here are some causes with no emphasis. Find out some appropriate effects or result for each cause!

Example: His wife doesn’t have enough time for her family.

His wife doesn’t have enough time for her family, so he is trying to find a day for them to talk about it to keep their family.

      1. Many young people are easily influenced by anything shown in social media.
      2. The students’ competence in comprehending a text is still low.
      3. Few parents are aware of the danger of their children’s addiction on gadgets.
      4. Only do few schools give attention more on students’ character than on academic excellence.
      5. Appreciating the elders are becoming lower nowadays.
      6. People who are busy with their gadget ignores what’s happening around them.
      7. Internet provides the easy life.
      8. Online business helps young people to begin their own business.
      9. People whose hobbies are reading have more knowledge.
      10. Our people still consider high IQ is more important than EQ.
      11. Parents commonly force their children to follow their ambition.
      12. What are needed the most to get success in the workfield is honesty and discipline.
      13. Education system in our country hasn’t focused on character building.
      14. Teacher is a profession which greatly influences the development of a country.
      15. Good attitude is one of the soft skills a job seeker needs to have.


2.2.  Here are some emphases! Find out some appropriate effects for each emphasis!

Example: There are only a few garbage cans provided in public places.

There are such a few garbage cans provided in public places that people finally prefer to throw their garbage everywhere.

      1. The number of vehicles has been increasing quite fast.
      2. The level of dangerous gasses is too high in big cities.
      3. A lot of countries ask their people to have solar cell roofs.
      4. Long time ago, people cared a lot to their environment.
      5. Many countries are hoped to have closed their plastic factories.
      6. It’s difficult enough to change people’s habit of using plastic bags.
      7. There are too many irresponsible tourists.
      8. The amount of inorganic waste is too much to be handled.
      9. People are too lazy to separate the organic and the inorganic waste when disposing them.
      10. Some rivers are full of garbage.
      11. There are still too many ignorant people to the environmental damage due to the use of plastic.
      12. It seems too difficult for people to change their habits of throwing the rubbish into the rivers.
      13. The condition of air pollution is extremely alarming.
      14. We have abundant garbage which is not controlled well.
      15. People use much paper quite carelessly.

2.3 Here is an article. Read it well, then write as many cause – and –effect sentences as possible based on the article.

Health benefits of listening to music

News Desk

The Jakarta Post

–  /  Sat, June 8, 2019  /  06:02 am

Those in the creative sector are no strangers to depression and anxiety. It has been found that creatives are nearly three times more likely than other people to live with these illnesses.

But a study conducted by Help Musicians UK has uncovered some ways to lessen the burden.

While working in the arts can result in psychological and emotional distress due to the high-pressure industry, creativity still helps develop a healthy mind. There are many outlets, but many have found music to be most accessible.

For example, a paper by Dr. Valorie Salimpoor of Toronto, Canada, says that something as simple as listening to music can release dopamine, also known as the “happy hormone”. Because of this, listening to music in the morning can greatly affect our mood for the day.

Our hearts can also benefit from listening to music, as our heartbeats match the tempo of what we hear, resulting in lower blood pressure and deeper breathing patterns. In order to fully relax, listen to a song that has a tempo of 60 beats per minute.

Finally, music can be key to our concentration as well. Not only do our hearts keep pace with the tempo, but our brains do, too. Instrumental music that has a clear and repetitive rhythm can help you focus on the task at hand. (sul/kes)




To practice using sentences with cause and effect, you had better write an Analytical Exposition text.

(to remind you on what analytical exposition text is, open this link:

Here are some theses you can choose for your essay:

      1. Parents must protect their children from the negative effects of gadgets.
      2. It is important for every teacher to teach democracy and practice it in the class.
      3. Motivating students to collaborate is necessary.


To review the material, answer these questions!

    1. How does the cause with no emphasis differ from that with emphasis?
    2. What is the grammatical construction for the cause with no emphasis?
    3. What is the grammatical construction for the cause with emphasis?
    4. What is the difference between Hortatory Exposition and Analytical Exposition?


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