DEGREES OF COMPARISON

DEGREES of COMPARISON

ADJECTIVES

REGULAR FORM :

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
One  syllable

Tall

great

 

taller

greater

 

tallest

greatest

Two syllables which end with, –ow, -y, -er

narrow

 

happy

clever

 

 

narrower or more narrow

happier or more happy

cleverer or more clever

 

 

narrowest or most narrow

happiest o most happy

cleverest or most clever

Other two syllables

Serious

famous

 

more serious

more famous

 

most serious

most famous

more than two syllables

Accurate

comfortable

 

more accurate

more comfortable

 

most accurate

most comfortable

 

IRREGULAR FORM

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
Good

Well

Bad

much/many

little

far

Better

Better

Worse

more

less

farther / further

Best

Worst

Most

Least

Farthest / furthest

1.1.           THE CONSTRUCTIONS OF COMPARISONS

1.1.1.   For the same degree in two persons and things, the construction is :

 S + to be / linking verb + as  +  positive adjective  +  as + noun (phrase).

 e.g.     These machines are as genuine as those ones.

His brother is as friendly as my brother.

 

1.1.2.        For the same degree in one person or thing, the construction is :       

 S + to be / linking verb + as + positive adjective + as + adj. /  sentence

e.g.           She is as intelligent as she is beautiful.

The questions are as long as confusing.

 

1.1.3.  For the Comparison of a greater degree in two persons/things, the construction is :             

 S + to be / linking verb  + comparative form + than + noun (phrase) / sentence.

e.g.           She is richer than I am / me.

 

1.1.4.  For the Comparison of a greater degree in one person / one thing, the construction is :

  S + to be/ linking verb + comparative form + than + adj. / sentence

  * more is used to show the greater degree in more than one syllable

e.g.           She is smarter than beautiful.

This  dictionary is more important than it is  expensive.

The workers are more skillful than diligent.

 

1.1.5.   For the comparison of a less degree in two persons / things, the construction is  :              

        S + to be / linking verb + comparative form + than + noun (phrase) / sentence   

        S + to be / linking verb + not so / as + positive adj+ as noun (phrase)

 * less is used to show the less degree in more than one syllable

e.g.          I am less interested in sport than her.

They were less enthusiastic than we expected.

This  tree  is not so / as old as the one  near  that park.

Mr. Anton is not so / as kind as Mr. Totok is.

 

1.1.6.   to express the idea of continuing change, we use this pattern :

 S + to be / linking verb + comparative and  comparative

 e.g.          The lesson is more and more difficult.

Human being becomes cleverer and cleverer.

 

1.1.7.   To say that two changes happen together, we use this pattern :

The  comparative + S + to be, The comparative + S + to be

e.g.           The more important the book is, the more expensive it is.

The more diligent you are, the better your mark will be.

 

1.1.8.        Superlative form uses :

 S + to be / linking verb + the superlative form

e.g.           It is the most tiring work I have ever done.

He is the greatest artist in the world.

Andi is the best.

 

  1. ADVERB

The general form of adverb is :

Adjective + ly  

  It is used to explain a verb and an adjective.

e.g.      –     The President spoke angrily in his speech yesterday.

            –       Some students were extremely excited when the headmaster allowed them to go home earlier.

   REGULAR FORM :

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
One  syllable   

Hard

High

early

 

Harder

Higher

Earlier

 

Hardest

Highest

Earliest

Two  or  more  syllables

Quickly

perfectly

 

more quickly

more perfectly

 

most quickly

most perfectly

 

IRREGULAR FORM :

2.1.            CONSTRUCTIONS WITH COMPARISONS

  POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
well

badly

much

little

far

better

worse

more

less

farther / further

best

worst

most

least

farthest / furthest

The constructions in adverb are, principally, the same as those in adjective. The difference is that adverb explains verbs, so the sentence must be the verbal one.

When  the  same verb is used in the same sentence, an auxiliary is needed to substitute it.

2.1.1.   In the positive form, we use AS … AS with an  affirmative verb and AS / SO … AS with a negative one.

e.g.           He works as slowly as he walks.

He doesn’t snore as/so loudly as you do.

 

2.1.2.        with the comparative form, we use THAN :

e.g.           Our headmaster always comes earlier than we do.

He run more quickly than the others did.

 

2.1.3.   To say that two changes happen together, we use this pattern :

              The Comparative + S + Verb, The Comparative  + S + Verb

               The Comparative+ S + Verb, The Comparative  + S +/ to be +  Adj.

e.g.       –    The earlier you start, the sooner you will be back.

–    The more accurately you calculate this, the faster we make the construction.

 

2.1.4.  to express the idea of continuing change, we use this pattern :

 S + Verb +  Comparative  and  Comparative

e.g.     That man is walking more and more slowly.

It’s amazing. He does it better and better.

 

2.1.5.        Superlative form

e.g.          I like swimming best. (=  quite)

He wrote the least carefully.

She answered the most perfectly.

 

Most which is placed before an adjective or adverb and without The can mean VERY.

e.g.          She behaved most /  very generously.

He is most /  very apologetic.

 

  1. IDENTICAL FORM OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS.

3.1.      There  are  some adjectives that are formed by  adding  -ly  to nouns  which  show a period of time. They are  hourly,  daily, weekly,  fortnightly,  monthly, quarterly, yearly.  These  are also used as adverbs.

e.g.           There is an hourly service of train to Surabaya. (adj.)

The buses run hourly .   (adv.)

 

We publish the journal in monthly periodicals.  (adj.)

This journal is published monthly.  (adv.)

3.2.      When the suffix -ly is added to nouns such as man, king,  etc. the  words become adjectives. They can not  be  used  as adverbs. They are : brotherly, cowardly, (un) earthly, fatherly, (un)friendly, heavenly, kingly, leisurely, lively, lovely, masterly, motherly, (un)scholarly, womanly.

e.g.           He is the most cowardly of my friends.

The more lively the show is, the more interesting it is.

 

3.3.      Early, fast, half, long, and straight, are used  both as adjectives and adverbs.

e.g.           We had an early breakfast yesterday.  (adj.)

We should have breakfast earlier tomorrow.  (adv)

She is afraid to go with a fast train.  (adj.)

Don’t speak too fast!  (adv)

She needs  half a dozen of the bowls.  (adj.)

He didn’t half mean it (= he was serious)  (adv)

We have to have a long wait to get the form.  (adj.)

Have you waited for me longer?  (adv)

I want a straight answer of my question.  (adj.)

He came straight from Germany (= the flight had no transit).  (adv.)

 

3.4.      These adjective words are used as adverbs with and  without the suffix -ly.

3.4.1.   CHEAP  is more common with the verbs BUY and SELL :

e.g.           Do you like this shirt ? I bought it really cheap.

That shopkeeper buys cheap but doesn’t sell cheap.

 

3.4.2    CLEAN  means “ completely “ or “ absolutely “ and is usually used with preposition over, through and the adverb away and out :

e.g.     –      Sorry, I didn’t come up. I clean forgot it

–       We are afraid we will be clean out of the food before we reach the nearest village.

* Compare to this adverb

CLEANLY   means “ precisely “ and usually used with  the  verb CUT :

e.g.      –     The surgeon cleanly cut through the epidermis.

–       This machine cleanly cuts the wood which will be used for the qualified furniture.

 

3.4.3.        CLEAR  means “ not touching “ or “ quite “ :

e.g.          Keep clear of the border !

The thieves got clear away (from their pursuers)

* Compare to this adverb

  CLEARLY  has similar meanings to its adjective :

e.g.          I can see them so clearly through it

Do you clearly understand what I mean ?

 

3.4.4         CLOSE  means “ near “ :

e.g.           Stay closer to me !

Is there a good restaurant close to the beach ?

* Compare to this adverb

CLOSELY  means “ carefully, with great attention “ and “ near” before the past participle :

e.g.           Work on it closely ! It’s very important.

Follow his argument closely !

They are closely related to the murder .

 

3.4.5    DIRECT   means “ straight, without interrupting or  intermediaries “ :

e.g.           The plane goes direct from London to Houston.

I will communicate direct with them.

* Compare to this adverb

DIRECTLY  means “ at once, without delay or in a short time “:

e.g.           He left directly after breakfast.

Be calm, I’ll go directly there !

 

3.4.6         EASY  is used only  in a few phrases as follows :

e.g.           Take it easy ! (= relax)

Go easy ! (= not too fast)

Easier said than done.

* Compare to this adverb

EASILY  has similar meaning to its adjective :

e.g.          You will easily imagine it.

He won the race easily.

 

3.4.7         HIGH  refers to “ height “ :

e.g.           He could climb the most high.

She can jump really high.

* Compare to this adverb

HIGHLY  expresses “ an extreme degree or very much “ :

e.g.          This dance is highly amusing.

I can highly recommend it.

 

3.4.8         LATE  has the similar meaning to its adjective :

e.g.           Hurry up, I hate arriving late.

She will come later.

* Compare to this adverb of time

LATELY  means “ recently “  :

e.g.           I haven’t been busy lately.

Have you seen Anton lately ?

 

3.4.9    LOUD   is commonly used with the verb TALK, SPEAK, SHOUT,  and LAUGH :

e.g.           Don’t talk so loud, you will wake the people up!

Who laughed the loudest ?

* Compare to this adverb

LOUDLY  is more usual with other verbs :

e.g.          He called loudly for help.

Someone knocked loudly at the door.

 

3.4.10       MOST  means “ very “ ( in rather formal ) :

e.g.           Which part of the concert did you like most ?

What pleases me most is that he will come to see me.

You are a most unusual person.

* Compare to this adverb

MOSTLY  means “ almost all or generally “ :

e.g.           My best friends are mostly priests.

This medicine is mostly sugar and water.

 

3.4.11       RIGHT  means “ exactly, directly or all the way “ :

e.g.          Put it right in the middle !

Go right to this winding road and then turn left !

* Compare to this adverb

RIGHTLY  means “ correctly “ :

e.g.   Act right (ly) !

You guessed right (ly).

 

3.4.12       SHARP   means  :

  1. punctually

e.g.          The meeting will begin at seven sharp.

The ceremony was opened at five o’clock sharp.

  1. “ suddenly  “

e.g.           Turn sharp to the left,  and you will see the building !

  1. “ above the true pitch ( music )  “

e.g.           Please, sing sharp. Your voice is too prominent.

* Compare this adverb

SHARPLY  means “ severely or harshly “ :

e.g.          He spoke too sharply to her.

That strange man looks sharply at me. I’m afraid.

 

3.4.13       WIDE  is the normal adverb :

e.g.           Open your mouth wide!

He was wide awake when the accident happened.

* Compare to this adverb

3.4.14  WIDELY   means “ at wide interval, or over a large area “  and is usually used before past participle:

e.g.         He has traveled widely.

The dust has been widely scattered.

GRAMMAR

NOUN and PRONOUN

NOUN AND PRONOUN

NOUN

In general, there are four kinds of noun :

  1. Common noun        :   e.g. dog, table, tree, man, … etc.
  2. Proper noun            :   e.g. Andi, Surabaya, Italy, … etc.
  3. Abstract noun         :   e.g. English, sadness, science, …etc.
  4. Collective noun       :   e.g. Crowd, group, audience, … etc.

1.1.            Countable Noun

Regular plural noun forming :

1.1.1         Most nouns have -s at the end of the singular form :

e.g.

   Singular plural
girl

page

table

book

girls

pages

tables

books

1.1.2       If the singular form ends in s, x , z , ch or sh, the plural is formed by adding -es to the singular

e.g.

Singular plural
       box

church

Glass

Quiz

Watch

Wish

boxes

churches

glasses

quizzes

watches

wishes

1.1.3.   The  plural  is formed by changing  y to –ies, if  the  singular form ends in y preceded by a consonant.

e.g.

Singular plural
baby

country

duty

lady

babies

countries

duties

ladies

But if  y  is preceded by a vowel, there is only  -s ending :

e.g.

 Singular plural
boy

donkey

toy

turkey

boys

donkeys

toys

turkeys

1.1.4.   The  plural  is added by -es, if the singular form  ends  in  O preceded by a consonant

e.g. 

Singular plural
Domino

hero

Tomato

potato

dominoes

heroes

tomatoes

potatoes

Some exceptions (because they are not from English)

e.g.

Singular plural
piano

dynamo

kimono

photo

biro

pianos

dynamos

kimonos

photos

biros

But  if  o is preceded by a vowel, the  plural  is added by -s :

e.g.

Singular plural
folio

radio

patio

folios

radios

patios

1.1.5.        Most words end in f are added by -s

e.g.

  Singular plural
belief

chief

proof

roof

beliefs

chiefs

proofs

roofs

Only some of them are changed into V + -es

e.g.

     Singular plural
calf

half

knife

leaf

Life

loaf

self

sheaf

shelf

thief

wife

wolf

calves

halves

knives

leaves

lives

loaves

selves

sheaves

shelves

thieves

wives

wolves

1.1.6.        Compound nouns are added by -s or -es to the singular to  form the plural :

e.g.

  Singular plural
bookshelf

drugstore

landlady

roommate

bookshelves

drugstores

landladies

roommates

But  hyphenated compound nouns are added by -s or -es  to  the first word of the combination

e.g.

Singular plural
hanger-on

looker-on

maid-of honor

mother-in law

passer-by

hangers- on

lookers-on

maids-of honor

mothers-in law

passers-by

          

Irregular  Form

1.1.7.        Vowel change

e.g.

Singular plural
child

foot

goose

man

mouse

ox

children

feet

geese

men

mice

oxen

1.1.8.        Many nouns from other languages are added by  -s or  -es to the singular, but here are some exceptions :

e.g.

Singular plural
alumnus

agendum

analysis

basis

crisis

criterion

datum

hypothesis

thesis

phenomenon

alumni

agenda

analyses

bases

crises

criteria

data

hypotheses

theses

phenomena

But there are some that are optional

Singular plural
curriculum

formula

index

memorandum

stimulus

syllabus

curriculums   or  curricula

formulas   or  formulae

indexes  or  indices

memorandums   or  memoranda

stimuli

syllabuses   or  syllabi

1.1.9.   The plural forms which have no singular one are pants,  scissors, shoes, shorts, trousers, … etc.

The verb for  these Nouns is in plural too.

e.g.      –     Scissors are used for cutting.

–     There were old trousers in the cupboard..

But if the noun is preceded by the measure of quality, the agreement of the verb depends on the number of  it.

e.g.    –       A pair of scissors is in his bag.

Some pairs of scissors are on my table  ( = some scissors are on my table)

1.1.10.   Nouns that are always singular (mostly from the abstract  one) are advice, baggage, furniture, information, knowledge, measles,  news,  rubbish,  … etc.

The verb for these Nouns are always singular.

e.g.     –      There is some important news that you should hear right now.

–   His new furniture has been sent.

1.1.11.   Name of science is singular, if it refers to an area of study, such as mathematics, economics, statistics, physics, … etc.

e.g.      –     Mathematics is my favorite lesson.

–    Statistics becomes more and more important.

But  if it refers to components / parts of an activity or  condition, it is plural :

e.g.     –      The statistics of the population growth in the world are amazing.

–   My mathematics are always bad.

1.1.12.   A few nouns are used both as a singular and a plural noun, like deer,  sheep,  fish,  species,  series, trout, … etc.

e.g.     A   :     We catch only a few fish

B    :     It’s all right. A few fish are enough for three of us.

1.2.            Uncountable Noun

Uncountable Noun is always singular.

To express the quantity,  use  some  certain  words (measures of quantity) such as :  cup, slice, piece, bottles, bar, … etc.

e.g.   –        I need some pieces of paper to type this report.

–   He bought a bottle of milk.

1.3.            The position of noun in noun phrase

1.3.1.        As adjective :

1.3.1.1. adjunct or attributive noun :

e.g.           stone chair,  mail box, …etc.  (* The bold word is noun but it functions as adjective)

Some  of  the possible meanings of the  relation  between  the first word and the second one :

1.3.1.2. The  first  noun gives the place where the second  comes  / happens / is found / used :

e.g.           a newspaper article                    Jakarta people

                    garden party                                  a table lamp

1.3.1.3. The first noun gives the time when the second happens /  is meant to be used :

e.g.           a day dream                                   morning coffee

                  midnight news                             Sunday paper

1.3.1.4. The first noun says what the second consists or is made of:

e.g.           an iron bridge                                 a puzzle magazine

                     cheese stick                                    hydrogen bomb

1.3.1.5. The  first noun says something about the function,  job  or role of the second :

e.g.           a conference room                      the telephone bill

a steam engine                              holiday plans

a shoe shop                                     a police chief

1.3.1.6. The second noun refers to an activity and the first noun is the object of the verb that describes that activity :

e.g.           adult education (=  the education for adult )

an animal training (= the training for animals)

1.3.1.7.  The second noun refers to a part or section of the first :

e.g.           the car door                     the river bank

                 violin strings                   the mountain slope

1.3.2  appositive noun (additional explanation) :

e.g.      –     Mr.  Andi,  a  director of this  company,  always  comes  early.

-The  most  beautiful  island in our  country,  Bali,  is visited  by  many tourists from  other  countries  every year.

1.3.3.        with possessive (possessive case) :

e.g.           her test,  their  house,  Mr. Totok’s  wife,   my dog’s food ..etc.

1.4.            The Position of Noun in a sentence

1.4.1.        as subject :

e.g.     –      Rendy is the cleverest in our class.

-The difficult problem in teenagers, love, should be handled carefully.

1.4.2.        as object

1.4.2.1  of  a  verb :

e.g.      –   I like dogs.

-The bank manager gave us  the new information.

IO  = us                 DO = the new information

DO = Direct Object

IO = Indirect Object

1.4.2.2.  as object of  preposition :

e.g.      –     She  is talking to the teacher.

-He  always  thinks  about his  parents.

My best friend bought  some novels for my sister.

DO = some novels                       IO= my sister

1.4.2.3. as a subject complement:

e.g.      –     That is our new teacher, Miss. Ernest.

-It has been our house since two years ago.

  1. P R O N O U N
Subject Object Poss. Adj. Poss. Pro. Reflexive Pronoun
I

you

we

they

He

She

it

me

you

us

them

him

her

it

my

your

our

their

his

her

its

mine

yours

ours

theirs

His

Hers

myself

yourself

yourselves

ourselves

themselves

himself

herself

itself

2.1             THE USE OF PRONOUN IN A SENTENCE

2.1.1         as subject :

e.g.           Mr. Totok is giving a speech. He is my husband.

My sister is fond of flowers. They are blooming now.

2.1.2.        as object  :

e.g.           Don’t you remember me?

There are some poor children. We have to take care of them with love.

There are three object positions in a sentence :

2.1.2.1.   S + V + DO + to + IO

The verbs  are  : announce,  describe,  explain,  introduce, mention,   prove,  repeat,  report,   say, speak, suggest.

e.g.           The teacher has explained the difficult unit to us.

DO     = the difficult unit              IO = us

Mr. Totok will introduce his wife to them.

DO    = his wife       IO = them

2.1.2.2.   S + V + DO + for + IO

The verbs  are : answer,  cash, change, close,  open,  pronounce, prescribe.

e.g.           I will answer the questions for you

DO     = the questions                    IO = you

Shall I close the window for you?

DO   = the window                IO = you

2.1.2.3.    S + V + IO + DO

The Verbs are : ask, cost, save, charge, and wish.

e.g.           The house costs me one hundred millions.

IO  = me                    DO = one hundred millions

He asks us some difficult questions.

IO = us                   DO = some difficult questions

Some verbs which can be used in two patterns ( look 2.1.2.1 and 2.1.2.3) : bring, give, lend, pass, read, send, sell , show, take, teach, tell, write.

e.g.           My uncle gave me some interesting books.

                                                   IO                        DO        

My uncle gave some interesting books to me.

DO    = some interesting books             IO = me

Some verbs which can be used in two patterns ( look 2 ) : buy, do, find, get, make.

e.g.  –  He bought me a bunch of flowers.

IO = me          DO = a bunch of flowers

He bought a bunch of flowers for me.

DO   = a bunch of flowers                         IO = me

2.1.3.        as object of preposition.

Some prepositions such  as  : to,  by, for, with, before, after,  about, from, near, under, … etc.

 e.g.      –     He said that he would go with me.

-I want to sit near him.

2.1.4.        as possessive adjective :

e.g.      –     The professor is doing a biology experiment. His experiment will be useful for medical treatment.

-The students are trying to prove the theory by making an experiment. Their results will be sent to the festival.

2.5.            as possessive pronoun:

e.g.    –       My answer is as perfect as hers.

-Her  argument is not relevant to the topic, but his  can make everyone realize what they should do.

2.6.            as reflexive and emphasizing pronoun :

2.6.1.        Reflexive pronoun for oneself :

e.g.      –     The residents of this complex build the small recreation park near their houses  for themselves.  (It is not open for public)

-Look ! That small bird is trying to reach the pea for itself. (There’s no other bird around)

-The man bought some fruit for himself  (because he has no  one in his house)   or   The man  bought  himself  some fruit.

2.6.2.        Reflexive pronoun to oneself :

e.g.     –      Don’t  always laugh at yourself whenever you  make  a mistake!

-We must look at ourselves before criticizing  someone else.

2.6.3.        Reflexive pronoun which shows being without accompaniment or being alone :

e.g.     –      I don’t like to pass through the cemetery by myself.

-She  is not able to walk by herself after she got  an accident.

2.6.4.        Emphasizing pronoun on subject :

e.g.      –     The headmaster will handle this problem himself    or  The headmaster himself will handle this problem.

-Miss. Lina wants to talk to you herself   or    Miss. Lina herself wants to talk to you.

2.6.5.        Emphasizing pronoun on object :

e.g.    –       I saw those strange animals themselves.

-The spy will send the message to the Prime Minister himself.

  1. INDEFINITE PRONOUN

3.1             Everyone/everybody and everything

Everyone/everybody  means all (the) people but it is followed  by singular verb.

e.g.     –      Everyone is ready  (= All the people are ready)

-Everybody knows it  (= All the people know it)

Everything means all (the) things and it is followed by  singular verb too.

e.g.       –    Everything has been run out  (= All the things have …)

-Everything was in order  (= All the things were …)

3.2.      someone/somebody, something, anyone/anybody, anything, no one/ nobody, nothing, someone/somebody, anyone/anybody, no one/nobody can be possessive :

e.g.    –       This is somebody’s passport.

-I need no one’s help.

like everyone/everybody, they have a singular meaning and take a singular verb but the personal pronoun is formally THEY :

e.g.      –    Nobody cares of this problem. They have their own

-Has anyone left their luggage in the safe place?

However,  with something, anything, nothing and everything, we use IT for the personal pronoun.

e.g.   –        Something goes wrong and we aren’t able to detect it.

-I don’t know where everything is. It may be somewhere.

3.3        ELSE can be placed after someone/anybody/nothing … etc.  and also the adverb somewhere, anywhere, everywhere and nowhere.

e.g.     –      I’m  afraid  I can’t help you now. Ask someone else  (= some other person)

-There won’t be anybody else here. (= any other person)

-You  may ask to everyone else for sure. (=  every  other person)

-You  will find no one else in my apartment. (= no  other person)

-It is enough. We don’t need anything else. (= any  other thing)

-Don’t you want to try somewhere else ? (= in/at/to  some other place)

GRAMMAR

SOME EXPRESSIONS

SOME EXPRESSIONS

COMMAND

1.1.     COMMAND is expressed by imperative

1.1.1.    The imperative for the second person

The form is infinitive without to :

e.g.    Hurry up!                              Be quiet!

Do it quickly!                       Be patient!

For  the  negative ( = prohibition) we put DON’T  before  the verb. It can mean a REQUEST not to do something :

e.g.    Don’t touch it!                            Don’t be shy!

Don’t leave it there!                Don’t be late!

Prohibition can be indicated by means of  brief announcements, with not allowed, prohibited or gerund (V1-ing):

e.g.    No smoking inside!

Swimming prohibited here!

Sandals not allowed in this office!

The person who is addressed is very often not mentioned, but it  can appear at the end of the phrase.

e.g.    Eat your dinner, Andi!

Come and join us, everybody!

“DO”  can be placed before the affirmative imperative  to  show the irritation or persuasion :

e.g.    Do be calm! It won’t help if you are panic.

Do forget it! I’m sick to hear it.

The  use of  PLEASE or WILL YOU softens a command into  a  REQUEST  and  the addition of WON’T YOU changes  an  imperative into an INVITATION:

e.g.    Close your books, please!   or   Please, close your book!

Hold it tightly, will you?

Have a share in this car, won’t you?  We still have enough space for both of you.

1.1.2.     The imperative for the first person.

The form :               LET’S  + infinitive without to.

This  form can be replaced by SHALL WE as SUGGESTION. (see MODAL)

e.g.    Let’s wait for them!   or   Shall we wait for them?

Let’s finish it now!  or   Shall we finish it now?

Let’s wait for them, shall we?

Let’s finish it now, shall we?

For the negative imperative, we put NOT before the verb :

e.g.    Let’s not repeat it!               Let’s not show it!

 

1.1.3.     The imperative for the third person

The form : LET HER / HIM / THEM / IT + infinitive without to

e.g.    Let  them  go by taxi =  They had better  go  by  train  (* more usual in modern English) in negative becomes “ They had better not go by train. “

1.2      Other ways of expressing COMMANDS.

Commands   are  often expressed as obligation by  MUST.  (see MODAL)

2.        REQUEST

Mostly  we  use MODAL in expressing request, but  here  are  some additions.

2.1.     formal request found in letters :

e.g.    I  should be grateful if you would tell me  whether  you have any vacancies.

Would  you  be kind / good enough to  keep  me  informed about the vacancies?

Would  you be so kind as to  keep  me  informed  about  the vacancies?

2.2.     with LET + noun or pronoun

e.g.    Let us know if you need our help.

Let me try it again.

Don’t let your dog enter my garden.

2.3.     WON’T YOU can mean invitation

e.g.    Won’t you stay a little longer?

Won’t you see my last creation?

 

3.        ADVICE

3.1.     OUGHT TO, and SHOULD (see MODAL)

3.2.     YOU HAD BETTER + Infinitive without to

e.g.    You had better take off your shoes

You’d better not follow this instruction

3.3.     IF I WERE YOU I SHOULD / WOULD ….

e.g.    If I were you, I would take this chance

If I were you, I’d not risk my position

3.4.     WHY DON’T YOU …

e.g.    Why don’t you take a computer course?

Why don’t you stay and wait for a moment?

 

4.        EXCLAMATION

e.g.    How nice (it is) to sit here with you!

How much wiser (it would have been) to reduce the speed.

What a pity (it is) to waste them!

What a pleasant surprise!

* it + be can be omitted

 

5.        OTHER EXPRESSIONS

5.1      INTRODUCING ONESELF

formal         :     Allow me to introduce myself. My name is …

Let me introduce myself. I’m …

I’m … How do you do?

response   :     Nice to meet you. My name is …

I’m … . How do you do?

informal     :     Hi. My name is … . What’s yours?

I’m … . How are you?

response   :     My name is …

I’m … . Fine, thanks.

 

e.g.     Mr. Bane   :     Let me introduce myself. My name is Bane.

Mr. Chan   :     I’m Chan. Nice to meet you.

 

5.2       INTRODUCING OTHERS

formal         :     I’d like to introduce my (the) …., …..( a name)

Let me introduce my …, … ( a name)

response   :     How do you do ?

informal     :     This is my …, … (a name)

response   :     Hi. I’m … . Pleased to meet you.

Hello, I’m … . Nice to meet you.

 

e.g.     Ali                 :     I’d like to introduce my new manager, Mr. Soma.

Mr. Alwi     :     How do you do?

 

5.3      Expressing GRATITUDE

Thank you so / very much. That’s very kind of you.

Thanks for …

I want to tell you how grateful I am …

I’m extremely grateful to you for …

I’m grateful for …

 

RESPONSE    :         You’re welcome

That’s all right

It’s a pleasure

Not at all

It’s nothing

 

e.g.                                    Mr. Andi    :     My daughter has been successful. I’m extremely grateful for your guiding her patiently.

Mrs. Ani     :     Not at all. I’m glad to help her. She is a smart girl.

 

5.4          Expressing A RESPOND TO GOOD NEWS

Oh… really?

How nice / wonderful / exciting (it is)!

I’m pleased / glad to her that!

Nice to hear that!

 

e.g.        Ronni          :     I’m invited to Mr. Joe’s concert. I have been looking forward to this moment since I met him last year.

Ita                 :     How wonderful! I hope you can enjoy your time.

 

5.5          Expressing SYMPATHY

I’ m sorry to hear that!

That’s too bad!

How awful / terrible!

 

e.g.        Mr. Fun      :     I lost my son in this beach two years ago.

Mr. Ian       :     I’m sorry to hear that. That must have been very hard for you.

5.6      ASKING AND GIVING OPINION

asking an opinion :               giving an opinion :

What do you think of …      In my opinion …

How about …                          I think that …

It seems to me that …

According to my opinion, …

 

e.g.     Oscar        :        What do you think about the seminar which I held last week?

Lea            :        I think that it was successful enough. However, you must pay attention on the time. Some guests felt bored.

 

5.7      Expressing LIKE and DISLIKE

The verbs expressing “like” are adore, love, be crazy about, be mad about, like, be fond of, be keen of ( * These verbs are followed by noun or verb1-ing)

e.g.    I love gardening much.

She is fond of talking about plants.

The verbs expressing dislike are dislike, hate, can’t stand, can’t bear ( * These verbs are followed by noun or verb1-ing).

e.g.    They dislike practicing under the sunshine.

I can’t stand his bad behavior.

5.8      Expressing APOLOGY

I’m terribly / extremely sorry for …

I’m sorry for …

I apologize for …

 

e.g.     Rins           :     I’m sorry for the trouble that I made yesterday.

Arl             :     It’s all right.

5.9      Expressing AGREEMENT and DISAGREEMENT

agreement                                   disagreement

I agree                                            I disagree

I think so                                       I don’t think so

Certainly                                        That’s not right

I’m sorry, but you are wrong.

 

e.g.     Shinta      :     I think that the people here don’t have any knowledge about farming.

Arin           :     I don’t think so. Look ! The plants are growing fertilely.

 

Clark         :     The film doesn’t have any interest at all.

Fenn         :     I think so.

 

5.10    expressing

SATISFACTION

I’m satisfied

It satisfies me much

It gives me much satisfaction

It’s really satisfying

 

DISAPPOINTMENT

I’m really disappointed

It disappoints me much

It doesn’t give any satisfaction at all

It is disappointing

 

e.g.     Jay             :     How about your trip ?

Lita            :     It satisfies much. I plan to visit those places again next year.

 

Irene        :     What do you think about the service in that restaurant ?

Fandy       :     It doesn’t give any satisfaction at all. The waitress aren’t kind and the food is terrible.

 

 

 
GRAMMAR

MODAL VERBS

MODAL VERBS

The General pattern of Modal Auxiliaries in a sentence is

 S + Modal Auxiliaries + V1 + C

1.         WILL

The uses of  WILL :

1.1.     in future tenses. (see Tenses)

1.2.     to express a REQUEST :

e.g.     A      :     Hey…  what’s  the matter with you?  Not feeling well, huh?

B       :     Will you get me some aspirin?

A      :     Sure. Here it is. Get some sleep for a moment then.

B       :     Thanks.

1.3.     to express a PROMISE (with first person)

e.g.     A      :     Don’t you remember that today is father’s birthday ?

B       :     Of course, I do.

A      :     So don’t forget to go home earlier!

B       :     I will.

1.4.     to express THREAT (with first person)

e.g.     A      :     I need some points in these three lessons in order to be promoted.

B       :     What do you want from me?

A      :     Let me know your answers in the final test.

B       :     But …

A      :     I will tell your shameful secret to everyone and send you away from my club.

Another  form of  WILL is BE GOING TO. It is used when we need two modal verbs in our sentence.

e.g.     They may be going to find the other facts. (NOT :  They  may will find the other facts)

He must be going to observe it in his laboratory.

BE GOING TO is used in future tense also. ( see TENSES )

2.         WOULD 

The uses of WOULD

2.1.     in past future tenses ( see TENSES )

2.2.     to express an INVITATION or OFFER

e.g.     A      :     Hey… what are you up to these days?

B       :     Just fine. And you?

A      :     Nothing to complain of. Would you join us? We have a small party to celebrate my graduate.

B       :     I wish  I could but I have something to  do  here. Oh .. congratulation, anyway!

A      :     Thanks.

2.3.     to express a REQUEST ( more polite than WILL ) :

e.g.     A      :     Would you look after my pets?  We will be out of the town for two days.

B       :     I will.

A      :     Sorry to trouble you.

B       :     Don’t worry.

The other forms of polite request  are :

– Would  you like to look after my pets?

– Would  you mind looking after my pets?

– Would  you care to look after my pets?

* WOULD  LIKE  =  WANT in these cases :

e.g.     I  would like to see some more ( more polite )  =  I want  to see some more

Would you like to speak to him?  =  Do you want to speak  to him?

* But see this comparison :

A      :     Would you like to have some tea with us? ( an invitation or offer )

B       :     Thank you. I’d love to.

A      :     Do you want to have some tea? ( a usual question )

B       :     Yes, I do / No, I don’t

* WOULD RATHER / SOONER ( to show preference )

e.g.     He  would  rather  stay here than go with you  =  He  prefers staying here to going with you.

He would rather eat some sea food than chicken =  He  prefers some sea food to chicken.

3.        SHALL

The uses of  SHALL :

3.1.     The same as WILL, it is used in future tense (see TENSES)

3.2.     to express a REQUEST FOR ADVICE OR ORDER

e.g.     A      :     Shall  I  apologize for  not calling  her  up  last night?

B       :     Why not?

A      :     But I doubt that she won’t accept it.

B       :     You haven’t tried it, have you?

3.3.     to express an OFFER

e.g.     A      :     Sorry that I make you wait for some minutes.

B       :     Never mind.

A      :     It is the busiest day. There’s so much work  I have to finish.

B       :     Shall I help you go over these reports ?

A      :     I appreciate your help, anyway, but I’ll manage it by myself.

3.4.     to express a SUGGESTION

e.g.     A      :     There is a speech contest  held  by the students from English department.

B       :     Then, what?

A      :     Shall we take advantage of this chance ?

B       :     Sounds great !

4.         SHOULD

The uses of SHOULD :

4.1.     It can replace SHALL in offer, suggestion and request for advice or order.

4.2.     to give advice / to say what we think it right or good for others to do

e.g.     A      :     You shouldn’t depend on him.

B       :     But he promised to come and help me. Do you  think he will keep his word ?

A      :     I am not sure. I know him for a long time, as I told you. He’s not a good guy.

4.3.     SHOULD with WHY and HOW :

4.3.1. to express INABILITY TO UNDERSTAND

e.g.     How should those birds be able to understand the trainer’s command?

Why should he fire the most faithful employee?

4.3.2. to express IRRITATION or ANGER

e.g.     A      :     Finish it now !

B       :     Why should I ? You have no right to order me !

 

A      :     What are they talking about ?

B       :     How  should I know it ? It’s not  my  business and yours, too.

5.         OUGHT TO

Its use is the same as SHOULD no. 2

6.         MAY

The uses of  MAY :

6.1.     to express PERMISSION :

6.1.1. to give permission ( affirmative )

e.g.     A      :     Why do you ask for a dog to that man?

B       :     I will take care of it.

A      :     Do your parents permit you?

B       :     Yes, I may keep a pet in my house if I promise to take care of it myself.

6.1.2. to ask for permission ( interrogative )

e.g.     A      :     Excuse me Sir, may I interrupt ?

B       :     Yes, come in.

A       :     Someone urges to meet you though I have told that you are having an important meeting.

B       :     Ask him to get in!

6.1.3. to refuse permission / PROHIBITION ( negative )

e.g.     In the school laboratory,

A      :     We will use some chemical substances which cause our skin burnt if they touch it. So, you may not make a joke here. Don’t forget to use the gloves.

B       :     Yes, Sir !

* In  past and perfect tenses we usually use BE ALLOWED TO but  in indirect speech we can use MIGHT.

e.g.     I was allowed to keep a pet when I was a child.  (=  My parents allowed me / gave me permission to keep…)

They have been allowed to use their rights in this election.

She said,” He may have three days off “.

She said that he might have three days off.

BE  ALLOWED  TO is also used if we want to use two modal verbs  in  our sentence.

e.g.     You  will  be  allowed to leave early  if  everything  is finished. ( NOT : You will may leave …)

The journalists must be allowed to cover up this trial.

6.2.     to  express  POSSIBILITY   (in future or present  and  used  in positive and negative only) :

e.g.     A      :     Look at the two young men standing by the pool!

B       :     What’s wrong?

A      :     They may be the members of FBI.

B       :     How do you know ?

A      :     I often see them where our boss is.

6.3.     to express FAITH or HOPE

e.g.     A      :     Listen ! I have got the promotion!!

B       :     Really? Tell me.

A      :     When I gave my last proposal this morning,  Mr. T told that I should move to the room next to his.

B       :     Oh … I’m glad to hear that. May the great success come to your life! Congratulation!

A      :     Thank you.

7.         MIGHT

The uses of  MIGHT :

7.1.     as past form of MAY used in indirect speech. (see MAY)

7.2.     to express POSSIBILITY (smaller than MAY)

e.g.     A      :     They aren’t familiar to one another, so it might  be easy for them to work in group.

B       :     I don’t think so. Children are always able to adapt to their new environment and friends.

 

A      :     As those new employees have just graduated, they might be able to handle this unit well.

B       :     I agree with you. They don’t have  enough  experience.

8.         CAN

The uses of  CAN :

8.1.     to express ABILITY (in present or future)

e.g.     A      :     Hey  …  can  you slow down this car  ?  It’s  too slippery.

B       :     Don’t worry,  I  can control it  well.  Don’t you remember that I am the best motorist ?

A      :     Don’t be so proud of yourself.

* BE ABLE TO is another form of CAN. We use it when there are two modals in our sentence.

e.g.     Don’t  worry,  the thief  won’t be able to break  up  this box. ( NOT : the thief won’t can break up …)

My mechanic may be able to fix it. ( NOT :  my mechanic  may can fix it )

Every student should be able to think critically. (  NOT  : every student should can think …)

He must be able to solve it by himself. ( NOT :  he must can solve …)

* BE ABLE TO is also used in PAST and PERFECT tenses.

e.g.     She has been able to calm down those people.

He was able to improve his ability by himself.

8.2.     to express POSSIBILITY ( affirmative only ). It is  different from possibility expressed by MAY.

8.2.1. it means that it is possible if circumstances permit.

e.g.     A      :     I wish that he isn’t late. If he misses the interview, he will lose his chance to get what he is eager to reach.

B       :     I think he can get there in about two hours because the bypass has been opened. So, he will have 30 minutes to prepare himself.

8.2.2. theoretically it is possible.

e.g.     A      :     Please, decrease the temperature quickly! It’s more than normal.

B       :     Why?

A      :     The pipe can burst out if it is overheated

8.2.3. to give information about the characteristics of persons or things.

e.g.     A   :     What do you think about her?

B    :     Why do you ask me?

A   :     You are her cousin, aren’t you?

B    :     As far as I know, she is a sensitive girl. She  can keep herself away from anyone who hurts her, even her boyfriend, for a long time.

8.3.     to  express PERMISSION (in affirmative or question  only  and less formal than MAY)

e.g.     A   :     Can I have some more?   (ask for permission)

B    :     Hey … you are on a diet, aren’t you?

A   :     Not in such situation.

B    :     Hm … that’s why you never lose your weight.

 

A   :     Listen! I have got good news for us. We can collect our assignment next week.  ( the speaker doesn’t have an authority to give permission)

B    :     How do you know?

A   :     The teacher called me this morning and told that there would be a meeting tomorrow , so the discussion would be cancelled.

8.4.    to express an OFFER

8.4.1. in positive

e.g.     A   :     You look so confused.

B    :     It will be my turn to answer after her but I haven’t got the answer yet.

A   :     You can use my work

B    :     No, thank you. The teacher will know that it is yours.

8.4.2.    in question

e.g.     A   :     How about the preparation?

B    :     I don’t  think that we can finish  it  today.  We still have to contact Mr. D for accommodation.

A   :     Can I call at his office on the way to my house?  I will ring you before dinner.

B    :     That’s  nice of you. Thank you.

A   :     Don’t mention it.

8.5.     to express a REQUEST (less formal than WOULD)

e.g.     A   :     I  am  still confused about this  point.  Can  you explain it to me?

B    :     Sure,  but I can’t do it right now because I  will have a test. How about in the afternoon?

A   :     In your house ?

B    :     Of course, what’s the matter?

A   :     Oh  ..  I  am just afraid that some  one  will  be jealous.

B    :     Don’t be worried, I have no special one.

 

9.         COULD    

the uses of  COULD :

9.1.     to express PAST ABILITY (= WAS/WERE ABLE TO)

e.g.     A   :     Have you visited him?

B    :     Not yet. How is he?

A   :     He is getting better physically, but it seems  that he  loses his memories. He could /was able to mention  the  formulae  of  solutions  accurately  and spontaneously, but now he has to think hard to find them.

9.2.     to express PAST PERMISSION (= WAS/WERE ALLOWED TO)

e.g.     A   :     Do  you  remember what we always did in  this  park when we were children?

B    :     Yes,  we  could come here every afternoon  to  play with our friends.

A   :     But now, look at the sign! We can’t even enter it.

9.3.     to express POSSIBILITY :

9.3.1. For affirmative or interrogative sentence, it is the  same as MAY / MIGHT.

e.g.     Would you open the door?  It could / may / might  be your friend.

9.3.2. there is a difference between MAY and COULD in negative.

e.g.     He couldn’t have an answer. (It is impossible  that he has an answer )

He may not have an answer. ( perhaps he doesn’t have an answer )

9.3.3. COULDN’T ( or CAN’T ) can be used for NEGATIVE CONCLUSION / CERTAINTY  ( contrasted to MUST ).

e.g.     A   :     She never comes late.

B    :     She may forget it.

A   :     I don’t think so, I know her. She always keeps her word.  She couldn’t / can’t have someone  to  take her. I’ll phone her for sure.

9.4.     COULD YOU … ? can also be used for introducing a request as an alternative to WOULD YOU…?

e.g.     Would you / could you do me a favor ?

10.       MUST, HAVE TO  and  NEED

The uses of MUST :

10.1.   To express obligation :

OBLIGATION ABSENCE  OF  OBLIGATION NEGATIVE OBLIGATION
Future must

will have to

need not

won’t need to

must not

won’t have to

Present must

have to

need not

don’t need to

must not

don’t have to

Past had to didn’t have to didn’t need to

10.1.1.In  affirmative,  MUST is used in present and  future.  For other  tenses, we use HAVE TO although it can also be  used in present and future (with WILL).

See  the difference between MUST and HAVE TO in present  or future :

e.g.     A  MOTHER  to HER SON : “ When you are thirteen next month , your own room will have been finished  so you must do  your  room yourself . Besides, you have been grown up. Be responsible to yourself “.  (internal obligation or the speaker’s obligation)

A MOTHER to HER SON : “ You will have to do your room when  you  have been in college dormitory as the rule says. You can’t pay someone for it .” (external obligation or the rule of the dormitory)

* In the first person, HAVE TO  is used for habits while MUST for an important or urgent obligation.

e.g.     A      :     Why are you in a hurry?

B       :     Ditto hasn’t come yet. I must call him up to tell that they will arrive in 15 minutes. He is the MC.

 

A      :     What time is it?

B       :     19.45

A      :     Oh… my GOD, I have to tell my parents that I will be late for dinner.

B       :     Do you have to do it?

A      :     Yes, every member of my family will do it. It’s our habit whenever we will go home late in order that they aren’t worried about us.

 

10.1.2.   NEED  can  be treated as an auxiliary and  used  mainly  in negative and interrogative. It has no past form, and usually used for present or future. ( see the table above )

e.g.     A      :  You  needn’t  do it in a hurry. I have  put  off  the meeting till next week. ( The speaker has an authority  to state that an action is unnecessary )

B       :     Yes, Sir!

 

A      :     Can I borrow your dictionary?

B       :     What for ?

A      :     to finish the vocabulary task ! Do you forget about it?

B       :     Are you daydreaming ?  Don’t you remember that it’s always collected at the end of a month?  We still have much time. You don’t have to /  don’t need to do it now.  ( for habit or negative external obligation )

 

A  :  You  must  not do it in a hurry because  if  you  are careless  and  make  a  mistake,   it will  explode.  (negative internal obligation / prohibition )

B  :   but we have limited time, Sir!

A  :   Don’t worry, I will ask Mr. D to help you! Our success depends on you, so do be careful !

10.1.3.   There  are  some possible answers  in  interrogative  using MUST,

QUESTION POSITIVE  ANSWER NEGATIVE ANSWER
Shall I have to? Yes, you will No, you won’t
Does he have to go? Yes, he does No, he doesn’t
Need I go? Yes, you must No, you needn’t
Must I go? Yes, you must No, you needn’t

e.g.     A   :     You must supply them with the correct information.

B    :     Must I supply them with the data too?

A   :     No, you needn’t.

B    :     The  correct information usually includes the  correct data, doesn’t it?

A   :     Yes, but not in this case. You  should  understand that  sometimes  we  don’t have  to  give  anything clearly to anyone who wants to know about us.

 

10.2.   to express a POSITIVE CONCLUSION / CERTAINTY :

e.g.     A   :     Look, it seems that there is no vacant seat for the three of us.

B    :     I  don’t  think so, because Mr. D told me  that  he still had 30 % of the tickets left.

A   :     So, there must be some seats vacant in the front.

 

* See the difference between MUST and MAY or MIGHT :

A   :     What should I give her? She refused all I gave  to her.

B    :     Give the food which is cooked by yourself. She may accept it because she likes your cooking.

A   :     I have, but still she doesn’t touch it.

B    :     (thinks for a moment) Ha … it must work out.

A   :     What’s in your mind ?

B    :     You  don’t need to give it yourself. Let  her  boyfriend do it.

A   :     You are a smart man.

 

11.       DARE

 

As an auxiliary, it is usual in negative or question form.

Negative present / past                He does not dare /  dares not

He did not dare / dared not

 

Interrogative present / past        Does he dare? / Dare he?

Did he dare? / Dared he?

 

e.g.     He doesn’t dare (to) say anything after that quarrel.

He dares not (to) say anything after that quarrel.

 

Did he dare interrupt them?

Dared he interrupt them?

 

* HOW DARE(D) HE /YOU / THEY ?

expresses indignation or anger.

 

e.g.     How  dare you open my letter without my permission  ?  (= I’m angry with you for opening it)

How dared he make  a fool  of  her in front of the  audience last night ? ( = I was really indignant of his behavior )

 

 

GRAMMAR

TENSES

 TENSES

  1. FORMS OF VERBS :
V1 V2 V3 V1-ing V (s/es)
do did done doing does
work worked worked working works
cut cut cut cutting cuts
study studied studied studying studies

 Note : Look up the irregular verbs at your dictionary.

  1. TENSES

 2.1.          SIMPLE PRESENT

2.1.1.Pattern :

(+) S + V1(-s/-es)

(-) S + do/does + not + V1

(?) Do/Does + S + V1?

e.g.          The wind blows quite hard.

The wind does not blow quite hard

Does the wind blow quite hard?

Yes, it does / No, it doesn’t

2.1.2.       The uses of Present Simple :

2.1.2.1. to express present habitual action

   time signal: every (day, week… etc.), once a  (week, month, … etc.),  always,etc.

e.g.          The milkman comes at 5.30 am every morning.

The students get an English lesson four times a week.

2.1.2.2.   to express general truth

e.g.        Water freezes at 00 centigrade.

Every creature needs love.

2.1.2.3. to  express feelings, condition or states, etc. in  present

e.g.          We hate his behavior.

I’m hungry.

He knows many languages.

2.1.2.4. to express the future time which is related to a timetable (as in the one at the airport ,  railway station, theater, or movie)

e.g.          The plane leaves from Surabaya at three o’clock so we must hurry now.

The “Psycho” begins at 18.00 and 21.30.

2.2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS

2.2.1. Pattern :

(+) S + is/am/are + V1-ing

(-) S + is/am/are + not + V1-ing

(?) Is/Am/Are + S + V1-ing?

e.g.          The astronomers are trying to discover the new galaxy.

The  astronomers aren’t trying to discover the new  galaxy.

Are the astronomers trying to discover the new galaxy ?

Yes, they are / No, they are not

2.2.2.       The uses of Present Continuous :

2.2.2.1. to express the activity that is in progress at  the moment of speaking

   Time signal : now, right now, at this moment

e.g.          He is feeding those animals right now.

All students aren’t having final test at this moment.

2.2.2.2. to  express the activity that is in  progress  but  not necessarily at the moment of speaking. The subject may be doing something else. The action that is mentioned in the sentence shows that it is still in progress within the period of  time.

   Time signal: this (afternoon, week…etc.) , today.

e.g.          The  professor  is  having a  research  on  the  new  theory this month.

(This sentence means that he isn’t in his library now and may be doing something else which doesn’t have any relation to his research.)

   The members of the committee are preparing the band festival this week.

(The action of preparing is only done after the school over, and they may be in class now)

2.2.2.3.   to express an event which has been planned for the future ( see also: Present future continuous)

e.g.          We are visiting the Borobudur temple then.

The speaker is speaking about the effect of the drugs after this.

The guests are having lunch in 10 minutes.

2.2.2.4.   with linking verbs to show a present change of condition :

e.g.          It is growing dark.

He is getting weaker and weaker.

2.2.3. Verbs that can’t be used in continuous tense :

2.2.3.1    Verbs of senses : feel, hear, smell, see, taste.

e.g.          This food tastes very delicious.  (= its taste is very delicious)

 BUT, compare these :

This food tastes very delicious (  in simple tenses)

Everyone is tasting it.  ( can be in continuous tenses. It means an action of tasting the food. The verb can be used in progressive tense)

I saw someone talking to the headmaster when I passed by his office. (This sentence means I didn’t look at him. It was only at a glance)

I was seeing my sick friend when I met him (see = visit, so it can be in  progressive tense)

This room smells bad .  (= the smell of this room is bad)

The researchers are smelling what gas in this hole is. (= an action of smelling and the verb can be in progressive tense)

The maid heard some persons arguing upstairs last night. (This sentence means she didn’t try to listen to it. It was only a coincidence)

Many people are hearing the judge’s decision in a court seriously. (it is formal situation and the verb can be used in progressive tense)

2.2.3.2. Verbs of possession  :  have, posses, belong to, own.

e.g.          Who owns this beautiful car?

Everyone has special characteristics.

This boutique belongs to the most designer in this town.

He possess everything by struggling!

2.2.3.3.   Verbs  which express feelings or emotions : adore,  wish, fear, appreciate, hate, like, love, etc.

 e.g.          We appreciate your great attention.

I hate hot weather.

2.2.3.4.Verbs  of mental activity : agree, believe, expect,  feel (= think, have opinion), forget, know, mean, realize, recognize, see(= understand), remember, trust, etc.

e.g.          They understand the Present Tense now.

I often forget my telephone number.

But, compare these sentences :

I think that he doesn’t recognize me  (= an opinion)

What is she thinking about?  She looks serious. (= the action of having a thought. The verb can be in progressive tense)

2.3.          SIMPLE PAST

2.3.1.       Pattern :

(+) S + V2

(-) S + did + not + V1

(?) Did + S + V1?

e.g.          The temperature fell into 22o Centigrade this morning.

The  temperature didn’t fall into 22o  Centigrade  this morning.

Did the temperature fall into 22o Centigrade this morning?  Yes, it did / No, it didn’t

3.2.          The uses of Simple Past :

2.3.2.1.   to express activity that occurred / existed in the past.

2.3.2.1.1. in a point of time

   Time signal: yesterday, last (year, month…etc), this morning, (two days, six months,…etc. ) ago

e.g.          They left our town an hour ago.

The artists didn’t have a show of their new  paintings last year.

2.3.2.1.2. over a period of time

   Time signal : during (the summer, the holiday…etc.),  from (1990 to 1999),  for (three days, two years ,..etc.),  all afternoon, years ago, when I was young, …  etc.

e.g.          My grandfather suffered from kidney trouble when he was alive.

The  workers worked hard all day long  without  any rest at all.

The rescuers evacuated the victims of the explosion from 06.00a.m to 05.00 p.m. yesterday.

2.3.2.1.3.  the time is indicated by the context or situation.

e.g.          The Dutch exiled Soekarno and his friends because they were always against them.

U.S beat Japan in the Second World War.

2.3.2.2.   to express past habitual action.

e.g.          We  had  a  nice breakfast every  morning  when  we stayed in the village.

The old man went climbing once a month from 1960 to 1980.

“Used to + V1” can be used to show Past habit :

e.g.          The   people   used to believe that the  Earth  was flat

used  to go to school on foot together  with  my friends when I was at Senior High School.

2.4. PAST CONTINUOUS

2.4.1.       Pattern :

(+) S + was/were + V1-ing

(-) S + was/were + not + V1-ing

(?) Was/were + S + V1-ing ?

e.g.          All students were having a morning ceremony.

All students were not having a morning ceremony.

Were all students having a morning ceremony ?

Yes, they were / No, they weren’t

2.4.2.       The Uses of Past Continuous :

2.4.2.1.   to  express  activity that was in progress at the time when another activity happened in the past.

e.g.          The sun was shinning brightly when I got up.

The  Students were examining the frogs when one  of  them jumped off the table.

2.4.2.2.  to express two activities that were happening at the same time (simultaneously).

e.g.          The  man  was digging a hole while  the  woman  was sweeping the garbage.

The  journalist was writing a note while  listening to the speech.

2.4.2.3    to emphasize the continuity or the progress of an activity in the past.

e.g.          What were you doing all morning ? I called you up twice but there was no answer.

2.5.          SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT

2.5.1.       Pattern :

(+) S + has/have + V3

(-) S + has/have + not + V3

(?) Have/Has + S + V3?

e.g.          The General has sent his troops.

The General hasn’t sent his troops

Has the General sent his troops?

Yes, he has  /  No, he hasn’t

2.5.2.       The uses of Simple Present Perfect :

2.5.2.1. to  express  finished action in a relatively  short  time before the moment of speaking  It is a present result of an activity in the past.

   Time signal : just, already, before, yet.

e.g.          We have just handed on our report to the editor so if  you want to know it, you can ask him now .

I’m sure they haven’t got our message yet because they don’t give any respond.

2.5.2.2. to express activity that began in the past and  continues up  to  the  present .

   Time signal : since (yesterday, two years ago, 2002…etc.), for (two years, three weeks,…etc.)

e.g.          We   have  learnt English for four years, but  we  are not able to speak it well.

This sentence means that we began to learn English four years ago and up to this time we still learn it.

Do you know how she is?  We haven’t heard about her since three months ago.

This sentence means that our last meeting was three months ago.

2.5.2.3.  to express activity that has been repeated up to present.

e.g.          I have written three letters and will continue the fourth after lunch.

We have paid a visit to that beautiful spot twice and plan to go there next holiday.

See the comparison between Simple Past and Simple Present Perfect below!

He  met me a minute ago.

   ( * not  yesterday  or two days ago but  a  minute ago, so it emphasizes the time of the action).

He has already met me.

   (* to  show that the action of meeting has been  completed, no matter when it happened).

The   athlete   has  run  around   the  stadium twice.

   (* it is still possible for him to run again)

The athlete ran around the stadium twice.

( * It is just a report that he did it twice and there is no possibility to do it again at present)

 2.6.          PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

2.6.1.       Pattern :

(+) S + has/have + been + V1-ing

(-) S + has/have + not + been + V1-ing

(?) Has/Have + S + been + V1-ing ?

e.g.          The president has been giving a speech for an hour.

The president has not been giving a speech for an hour.

Has the president been giving a speech for an hour ?

Yes, he has / No, he hasn’t

2.6.2.       The  use  of Present Perfect Continuous is to express the action that began in the past,  and is still in progress at present especially at the time of speaking and may continue up to the future time.

e.g.          The  people have been standing there to get the  ticket for the show since an hour ago.

This sentence means that they are still there.

The machine has been working all day long.  Ask the operator to stop it for a while in order that it doesn’t overheat.

2.7.          SIMPLE PRESENT FUTURE

2.7.1.       Pattern :

(+) S + will/shall + V1

(-) S + will/shall + not + V1

(?) Will/Shall + s +  V1?

e.g.          That family will adopt a child from an orphanage.

That family will not adopt a child from an orphanage.

Will that family adopt a child from an orphanage?

Yes, they will / No, they will not.

* SHALL is sometimes used for the first person (  I and WE )

2.7.2.       Time signal : tomorrow, next week /…, in two hours /in …, soon, immediately.

2.7.3.       The uses of Present Future :

2.7.3.1. to express the activity which will happen in the future.

e.g.          There will be some important guests in our town  tomorrow.

Will the people know about his real profession soon?

2.7.3.2.   used with clauses of condition, time or purpose.

e.g.          I’ll go if she wants me to. (clause of condition)

The work will begin when the instructor comes. (clause of time)

Some experts will have another observation about healthy food for babies in order that they can get nutritious food for their growth. (clause of purpose)

2.7.4.       The differences between WILL and TO BE GOING TO in expressing the future action are as follows:

2.7.4.1. in decision or intention :

e.g.          Look, the old man is trying to cross the street. I will help him.

   ( * there is no preparation or plan before and usually  it is the first person’s intention)

When  I passed by her house this morning, some  people  were busy. She is going to have a big party tonight.

   ( * there is  a preparation / plan or it has been determined before)

2.7.4.2. in prediction :

e.g.          I  think that he will realize what he did after having  your advice.

   ( * to express the speaker’s opinion,  assumption  or what  he believes that it will happen. It can  be  introduced by these verbs : think, know, believe, doubt,  expect, be afraid, wonder, etc.)

 Oh.. how hot today is. It is going to rain hard

   ( * there is a sign that something will happen)

2.8.          PRESENT FUTURE CONTINUOUS

2.8.1.       Pattern :

(+) S + will + be + V1-ing

(-) S + will + not + be + V1-ing

(?) Will + s + be + V1-ing?

e.g.          The teachers will be having a meeting next week.

The teachers will not be having a meeting next week.

Will The teachers be having a meeting next week ?

Yes, they will / No, they will not

2.8.2.       Time Signal : the same with the Simple Present Future.

2.8.3.       The uses of Present Future Continuous :

2.8.3.1    to express  the activity  that has already been fixed  or decided for the future based on  :

2.8.3.1.1. present habit

e.g.          Don’t call me up at 5 p.m. tomorrow because I will be having a mathematic course.

It’s Monday. You can meet the two professors because they will be examining  the  result of their  research  in  this laboratory. They meet each other every Monday to discuss about their research.

2.8.3.1.2. agreement, appointment or contemporary schedule.

e.g.          The  Professor  will be giving a speech at the same time tomorrow.  (as his schedule says)

I  can’t accompany you to see around the town  next Sunday  because  I will be  preparing  my  cousin’s birthday party.

2.8.3.1.3. to  express a polite way of asking about somebody’s  plan in the future. (in question only)

e.g.          Will  you  be  taking  a  picture of the  landscape in  that  village  next weekend ?  I  want  to  join you.

Will  you  be moving all these plants to  your  new house ? We would like to help you.

2.9.          SIMPLE PAST PERFECT

2.9.1.       Pattern :

(+) S + had + V3

(-) S + had + not + V3

(?) Had + S + V3?

e.g.          The judge had made a wise decision.

The judge had not made a wise decision.

Had the judge made a wise decision?

Yes, he had / No, he hadn’t

2.9.2.       The uses of Past Perfect :

2.9.2.1.   to express  an  activity that had happened earlier  than another action in the past.

e.g.          He  had moved to this school before you were born.

They had gone when I realized what was happening.

They  did  it  after they had  got  the  director’s order.

They  had  thrown the valuable things away  by  the time the police arrived.

2.9.2.2. used in reported speech.

e.g.          She said, “ I have already accepted them.”

She said that she had already accepted them.

She asked, “ How long have you been here?”

She asked how long I had been here

2.9.2.3.   used in conditional sentence type 3.

e.g.          If I had had enough time, I would have finished  it well.

She wouldn’t have been there if you hadn’t called her.

2.9.2.4.    used to express unfulfilled plan

e.g.            Everyone had hoped to get the author’s signature, but he directly left the conference.

I had thought of leaving early morning, but cancelled it.

2.10.        PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

2.10.1.    Pattern :

(+) S + had + been + V1-ing

(-) S + had + not + been + V1-ing

(?) Had + S + been + V1-ing?

e.g.         Everyone had been standing in row for an hour before the actress came.

Everyone had not been standing in row for an hour before the actress came.

Had  everyone  been standing in row for an  hour  before the actress came ?

Yes, they had / No, they hadn’t

2.10.2.    Time  signal : we can use the time signal of  Simple Past Perfect.

2.10.3.    The uses of Past Perfect Continuous :

2.10.3.1. to indicate an action that continued up to or into the time  when another time in the past began and it was still in progress.

e.g.          He had been sleeping for an hour when his  parents came home.

This sentence means that he was sleeping when his parents  came.

2.10.3.2. used in indirect speech :

e.g.          They told us, “ We have been looking for a job  for a long time. “

They  told us that they had been looking for a  job for a long time.

He asked, “ Was everyone preparing their own  material yesterday? “

He asked whether everyone had been preparing  their own material the day before.

2.10.3.3. used in conditional sentence type 3 :

e.g.          They  might have died if they hadn’t  been  wearing the disinfectant coat.

                  If I had been swimming, the wave would have taken me too.

2.11.        SIMPLE PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT

2.11.1.    Pattern :

(+) S + will/shall + have + V3

(-) S + will/shall + not + have + V3

(?) Will/Shall + S + have + V3 ?

e.g.          My secretary will have finished it before lunch.

My secretary will not have finished it before lunch.

Will your secretary have finished it before lunch?

Yes, she will / No, she won’t

2.11.2.    Time signal : before (you arrive…etc.) , by (next week..etc.)., when (the time is over…etc.), by the time (you come home…etc.)

2.11.3.    The use  of  Simple  Present Future Perfect  is  to  indicate an action  that will be completed at the point of the time  in the future.

e.g.          He will have seen some interesting sights before he returns. So when we meet him later, he can tell us about his experiences.

The plane will have taken off by the time we get to  the airport. That’s why, let’s hurry up.

2.12.        PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

2.12.1.    Pattern :

(+) S + will/shall + have + been + V1-ing

(-) S + will/shall + not + have + been + V1-ing

(?) Will/Shall + S + have + been + V1-ing?

e.g.          He will have been working here for twenty five years by the end of this month.

He  will  not have been working here  for  twenty  five years by the end of this month.

Will he have been working here for twenty five years by the end of this month ?

Yes, he will  /  No, he won’t

2.12.2.    Time signal : the same as SIMPLE PRESENT FUTURE PERFECT

2.12.3.    The Use of Present Future Perfect Continuous is to express an action that will still be in progress at a given future time.

e.g.          The trainees will have been having a practice for a week by tomorrow. It is the fourth day for them.

Our  employees  will have been doing it  for  about three hours when we arrive there, so you can know how they are working.

2.13.        SIMPLE PAST FUTURE

2.13.1.    Pattern :

(+) S + would + V1

(-) S + would + not + V1

(?) Would + s + V1?

e.g.          She would sit here and see the flying birds.

She would not sit here and see the flying birds

Would she sit here and see the flying birds ?

Yes, she would / No, she wouldn’t

2.13.2.    The uses of Simple Past Future :

2.13.2.1. used  in Reported Speech when  the  main  verb is past

e.g.          She said, “ I will be ready in a few minutes.”

She said that she would be ready in a few minutes.

He asked me, “Will you move to another  office soon ?”

He asked me whether I would move to another  office soon.

2.13.2.2. used in conditional sentence type 2

e.g.          I would clean the house myself if I had time

His children would be happy if he were at home

2.13.2.3. used  in talking about something which was in the  future at that time but which had not happened yet.

e.g.          Last time I saw your family, they would have a long journey.

In 1956 there was a smart boy who would be a president of United States.

We had  better  use WOULD to express future in the past  for  the first person.

e.g.          I would make some changes on my data when they saw my work.

2.14.        PAST FUTURE CONTINUOUS

2.14.1.    Pattern :

(+) S + would + be + V1-ing

(-) S + would + not + be + V1-ing

(?) Would + S + be + V1-ing ?

e.g.          He would be seeing the doctor if he didn’t have a guest

He  would not be seeing the doctor if he didn’t have a stomach trouble.

If  he  did  not have a guest,  would he  be  seeing  a doctor ?

2.14.2.    The uses of Past Future Continuous :

2.14.2.1.  used  in Reported Speech when  the  main verb is past.

e.g.          She said,” I will be doing some shopping this evening.”

She said that she would be doing some shopping that evening.

He  wanted to know,”  Will they be having  a  show the following week ? “

He  wanted to know if they would be having  a  show the following week

2.14.2.2. used in conditional sentence type 2

e.g.          They  would  be having a discussion if they  got  the result from their partner.

If  everyone  knew about this news, they  would  be talking about it now.

2.15.        SIMPLE PAST FUTURE PERFECT

2.15.1.    Pattern :

(+) S + would + have + V3

(-) S + would + not + have + V3

(?) Would + S + have + V3?

e.g.          She would have been there if she had been invited

She wouldn’t have been there if she hadn’t been invited

Would she have been there if she had been invited?

2.15.2.    The uses of  Simple Past Future Perfect

2.1.5.2.1. used  in Reported Speech when  the  main verb is past

e.g.          He  told me,” I will have had the last  interview by the end of the month.”

He  told me that he would have had the last  interview by the end of the month.

He  asked,” When will I have got the result of  the experiment ?”

He  asked when he would have got the result of  the experiment.

2.15.2.2. used in conditional sentence type 3

e.g.          They  would have saved all the victims if they  had had good instrument.

If  his parents had listened to the  warning,  they would have been here safely.

2.16.        PAST FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

2.16.1.    Pattern :

(+) S + would + have + been + V1-ing

(-) S + would + not + have + been + V1-ing

(?) Would + S + have + been + V1-ing?

e.g.         She would have been training them if there had been a new project.

She wouldn’t have been training them if there hadn’t  been a new project.

Would she have been training them if there hadn’t  been a new project?

2.16.2. The uses of Past Future Perfect Continuous

2.16.2.1. used  in Reported Speech when the  main verb is past

e.g.          He told,” They will have been having a test for two days by Thursday.”

He told that they would have been having a test for two days by Thursday.

He asked,”  How long will they have been testing  the instruments before the launching ?”

He asked how long they would have been testing  the instruments before the launching .

2.16.2.2.  used in conditional sentence type 3

e.g.          The audience would have been staying on their seats if the attractions had not been so boring.

The  students  would have  been  cleaning  their class if it hadn’t been locked.

GRAMMAR

TO BE AS ORDINARY VERB

 

CHAPTER ONE TO BE and TO HAVE AS ORDINARY VERB

TO BE

1.1.         Form of “TO BE”

V1 V2 V3 V1– ing Present
be was / were been being is/am are

1.2.            The verb “be” is followed by :

1.2.1.        Adjective

e.g.           – The problem is difficult            – The people were angry.

– Those students are clever.     – The party was amazing.

difficult, angry, clever and amazing are adjective.

*                The function of  adjective is to describe a noun.

Some positions of  adjective are :

1.2.1.1.                 in noun phrase

e.g.                        –  a  smart  boy   (=  a boy who is smart)

– an easy  question (= a question which is easy)

1.2.1.2. in a sentence after to be or linking verbs

such as : appear, become, get, go, grow, look, run, seem, smell, sound, turn, etc.

    (* the adjective after to be or linking verbs functions as complement of to be)

e.g.        –  This boy is creative

–  That  cake looks delicious

–  The audience was impatient to see their favorite actor.

1.2.2     Noun

e.g.       – They are new workers.

– He was my headmaster

– English will be our main subject in this school.

new workers, my headmaster and our main subject are Noun (phrases)

1.2.3.    Adverb (of place)

e.g.       – Our headmaster is in his office.

– They have been inside the church.

in his office and inside the church are Adverb of place.

1.3.         The verb “be” can be followed by :

1.3.1.     age          :   – She is fifteen.

1.3.2.     size or weight    :- The tree is 1.25 m high.

– This baggage is 10 kilograms.

1.3.3.     price          :          – This picture is two million dollars.

 

1.4.         The examples of “to be” in different tenses :

1.4.1.     Present                :               – All of them are our important guests.

1.4.2.     Past                       :               – All of them were our important guests.

1.4.3.     Present Future      :         – All of them will be our important guests.

1.4.4.     Present Perfect     :         -All of them have been our important guests.

  1. The verb “TO HAVE”

2.1.       Form :

V1 V2 V3 V1– ing V1 (s/es)
have had had having has

2. 2.          The basic meaning of “ to have” is to posses.

  1. e.g. – Mr. Andi has a wonderful villa here.

– Mr. Andi doesn’t have a wonderful villa here.

– Does Mr. Andi have a wonderful villa here ?

Yes, he does / No, he doesn’t

2.3.        The examples of “to have” in different tenses :

2.3.1.     Present Simple           :- We have the answers.

2.3.2. Past Simple :- We had the answers.

2.3.3. Simple Present Future :- We  will have the answers.

2.3.4. Simple Present Perfect :- We have had the answers.

2.3.5. Simple Present Future Perfect:- We will have had the answers.

2.3.6. Simple Past Perfect :-We had had the answers.

2.4. “To have” can be used to mean :

2.4.1. to take (a meal / food or drink / a bath / a lesson, etc.)

e.g. – Our family always has breakfast.

– We need to have a computer course.

2.4.2. to give / to hold ( a party)

e.g. – Shall we have a welcome party for them ?

– The club will be having a garden party here next Sunday

2.4.3. to face / to encounter

e.g. – I don’t have any difficulties with the test.

– She had a difficult problem with her right hand.

2.4.4. to spend / to experience

e.g. – All of us will have a nice holiday.

– He had a lovely evening with his children.

 

GRAMMAR